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Toxicological information

Genetic toxicity: in vitro

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
16 Dec 2015 - 14 Jan 2016
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2016
Report Date:
2016

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Analytical purity: > 99%
Specific details on test material used for the study:
SOURCE OF TEST MATERIAL
- Source and lot/batch No.of test material:XK15013476; 1044147
- Expiration date of the lot/batch:
- Purity: 99.982%


STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: Room temperature, protected from light and under inert gas (nitrogen)


Method

Species / strain
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and E. coli WP2
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
Aroclor-induced rat liver S9
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
50, 100, 500, 1500, 5000 µg/plate
In the preliminary toxicity assay, the dose levels tested were 6.67, 10.0, 33.3, 66.7, 100, 333, 667, 1000, 3333 and 5000 μg per plate. Neither precipitate nor toxicity was observed. Based upon these results, the maximum dose tested in the mutagenicity assay was 5000 μg per plate.
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: water
Controls
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
9-aminoacridine
2-nitrofluorene
sodium azide
methylmethanesulfonate
other: 2-aminoanthracene
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
Tester strains TA98 and TA1537 are reverted from histidine dependence (auxotrophy) to histidine independence (prototrophy) by frameshift mutagens. Tester strain TA1535 is reverted by mutagens that cause basepair substitutions. Tester strain TA100 is reverted by mutagens that cause both frameshift and basepair substitution mutations. Specificity of the reversion mechanism in E. coli is sensitive to basepair substitution mutations, rather than frameshift mutations (Green and Muriel, 1976).
Salmonella tester strains were derived from Dr. Bruce Ames’ cultures; E. coli tester strains were from the National Collection of Industrial and Marine Bacteria, Aberdeen, Scotland.
Solubility Determination
Water was the vehicle of choice based on the solubility of the test substance and compatibility with the target cells. The test substance formed a clear solution in water at a concentration of approximately 50 mg/mL in the solubility test conducted at BioReliance.
Preparation of Tester Strain
Overnight cultures were prepared by inoculating from the appropriate frozen permanent stock into a vessel, containing 30 to 50 mL of culture medium. To assure that cultures were harvested in late log phase, the length of incubation was controlled and monitored. Following inoculation, each flask was placed in a shaker/incubator programmed to begin shaking at 125 to 175 rpm and incubating at 37±2°C for approximately 12 hours before the anticipated time of harvest. Each culture was monitored spectrophotometrically for turbidity and was harvested at a percent transmittance yielding a titer of greater than or equal to 0.3x109 cells per milliliter. The actual titers were determined by viable count assays on nutrient agar plates.
Identification of Test System
Each plate was identified by the BioReliance study number and a code system to designate the treatment condition, dose level and test phase, as described in detail in BioReliance's Standard Operating Procedures.
Exogenous Metabolic Activation
Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver S9 was used as the metabolic activation system. The S9 was prepared from male Sprague-Dawley rats that were injected intraperitoneally with Aroclor™ 1254 (200 mg/mL in corn oil) at a dose of 500 mg/kg, five days before sacrifice. The S9 (Lot No. 3560, Exp. Date: 02 December 2017) was purchased commercially from MolTox (Boone, NC). Upon arrival at BioReliance, the S9 was stored at -60°C or colder until used. Each bulk preparation of S9 was assayed for its ability to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene and 2-aminoanthracene to forms mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA100.
Mutagenicity Assay
The mutagenicity assay was used to evaluate the mutagenic potential of the test substance. TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and WP2 uvrA were exposed to the vehicle alone, positive controls and five dose levels of test substance, in triplicate, in the presence and absence of
Aroclor-induced rat liver S9.
Evaluation criteria:
All Salmonella tester strain cultures must demonstrate the presence of the deep rough mutation (rfa) and the deletion in the uvrB gene. Cultures of tester strains TA98 and TA100 must demonstrate the presence of the pKM101 plasmid R-factor. All WP2 uvrA cultures must demonstrate the deletion in the uvrA gene.
All cultures must demonstrate the characteristic mean number of spontaneous revertants in the vehicle controls as follows (inclusive): TA98, 10 - 50; TA100, 80 - 240; TA1535, 5 - 45; TA1537, 3 - 21; WP2 uvrA, 10 - 60.
To ensure that appropriate numbers of bacteria are plated, tester strain culture titers must be greater than or equal to 0.3x109 cells/mL.
The mean of each positive control must exhibit at least a 3.0-fold increase in the number of revertants over the mean value of the respective vehicle control.
A minimum of three non-toxic dose levels is required to evaluate assay data. A dose level is considered toxic if one or both of the following criteria are met:A >50 % reduction in the mean number of revertants per plate as compared to the mean vehicle control value. This reduction must be accompanied by an abrupt dose-dependent drop in the revertant count. At least a moderate reduction in the background lawn.

Results and discussion

Test results
Species / strain:
other: S. typhimurium TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537 and E. coli WP2uvrA
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Positive controls validity:
valid

Any other information on results incl. tables

All criteria for a valid study were met as described in the protocol. The results of the Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay indicate that, under the conditions of this study, Propionic Acid (CAS # 79-09-4) did not cause a positive mutagenic response with any of the tester strains in either the presence or absence of Aroclor-induced rat liver S9. The study was concluded to be negative without conducting a confirmatory (independent repeat) assay because the results were clearly negative; hence, no further testing was warranted.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Executive summary:

The test substance, Propionic Acid (CAS # 79-09-4), was tested to evaluate its mutagenic potential by measuring its ability to induce reverse mutations at selected loci of several strains of Salmonella typhimurium and at the tryptophan locus of Escherichia coli strain WP2 uvrA in the presence and absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system. Water was used as the vehicle.

In the mutagenicity assay, the dose levels tested were 50.0, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg per plate. Neither precipitate nor toxicity was observed. No positive mutagenic responses were observed with any of the tester strains in either the presence or absence of S9 activation.

These results indicate Propionic Acid (CAS # 79-09-4) was negative for the ability to induce reverse mutations at selected loci of several strains of Salmonella typhimurium and at the tryptophan locus of Escherichia coli strain WP2 uvrA in the presence and absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system.