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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with adequate and reliable documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
1. SOFTWARE
Vega version 1.1.4

2. MODEL (incl. version number)
Fathead Minnow LC50 96h (EPA) v1.0.7

3. SMILES OR OTHER IDENTIFIERS USED AS INPUT FOR THE MODEL
See “Test material information”

4. SCIENTIFIC VALIDITY OF THE (Q)SAR MODEL
See attached information on the model provided by the developer. Further information on the OECD criteria as outlined by the applicant is provided below under "Any other information of materials and methods incl. tables"

5. APPLICABILITY DOMAIN
See attached information and information as provided in "Any other information on results incl. tables".

6. ADEQUACY OF THE RESULT
See assessment of adequacy as outlined in the "Overall remarks, attachments" section.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: REACH Guidance on QSARs R.6
Principles of method if other than guideline:
- Software tool(s) used including version: Vega v1.1.3
- Model(s) used: Fathead Minnow LC50 96h (EPA) version 1.0.7
Full reference and details of the used formulas can be found in:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2016. User’s Guide for T.E.S.T. (version 4.2) (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool), 2016
R. Todeschini and V. Consonni, Molecular Descriptors for Chemoinformatics, Wiley-VCH, 2009
- Model description: see field 'Justification for non-standard information', 'Attached justification' and 'any other information on Material and methods'
- Justification of QSAR prediction: see field 'Justification for type of information', 'Attached justification' and/or 'overall remarks'
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Test type:
other: QSAR calculation
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
322.74 mg/L
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

For detailed information on the results please refer to the attached report.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented publication which meets basic scientific principles (peer reviewed in OECD-SIDS)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Acute toxicity test, no guideline followed
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Test organisms (species):
Lepomis macrochirus
Test type:
static
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
2 500 mg/L
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

The following numbers of survivors were reported:

Conc. Number of Survivors %
(ppm) | Hours | Survival
| 1-6 24 48 72 96|
| |
1213 10 10 10 10 10 100
1748 10 10 10 10 10 100
1728 10 9 9 9 9 90
2073 10 5 5 5 5 50
4495 0 0 0 0 0 0

The positive control performed as expected.

The dissolved oxygen (ppm) and pH was recorded at 24 hours
for solutions where mortalities occurred, as follows:

Conc. (ppm) DO pH
1748 4.5 7
1728 6.8 7

The dissolved oxygen (ppm) and pH was recorded at 1-6 hours
for solutions where mortalities occurred, as follows:

Conc. (ppm) DO pH
4495 6.3 7

The summary of reactions following the bubbling of ethyl
chloride into the test vessels:

Conc. Onset Duration Time of
(ppm) Reaction (hrs) (hrs) death (hrs)
1213 Surfacing 1 1-6 NA
[5*] Sounding 1 1-6
Swimming:
Gyrating 1 1-6
Inverted 1 1-6
On side 1 1-6
Against tank sides on
bottom 1 1-6
Defecating 1 24
1748 Surfacing 1 1-6 NA
[7*] Sounding 1 1-6
Swimming:
Gyrating 1 1-6
Inverted 1 1-6
On side 1 1-6
Against tank sides on
bottom 1 1-6
Defecating 1 24
1728 Surfacing 1 1-6 24
[10*] Sounding 1 1-6
Swimming:
Gyrating 1 1-6
Inverted 1 1-6
On side 1 1-6
Against tank sides on
bottom 1 1-6
Defecating 1 24
2073 Surfacing 1 1-6 24
[15*] Sounding 1 1-6
Swimmming:
Gyrating 1 1-6
Inverted 1 1-6
On side 1 1-6
Against tank sides on
bottom 1 1-6
Defecating 1 24
Quiescent 24 24
4495 Surfacing 1 until 24
[18*] Sounding 1 death
Swimming:
Gyrating 1
Inverted 1
On side 1
Against tank sides on
bottom 1
Defecating 1

Where [*] = bubbling time in minutes
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well documented publication which meets basic scientific principles (peer reviewed in OECD-SIDS)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Acute toxicity test, no guideline followed
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Test organisms (species):
Micropterus salmoides
Test type:
static
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 2 000 mg/L
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

The following numbers of survivors were reported:

Conc. Number of Survivors %
(ppm) | Hours | Survival
| 1-6 24 48 72 96 |
| |
1467 10 10 10 9 9 90
2051 10 10 10 9 9 90
2642 10 8 8 8 8 80
3040 10 2 2 2 2 20
2740 0 0 0 0 0 0

The positive controls performed as expected.

The dissolved oxygen (ppm) and pH was recorded at 24 hours
for solutions where mortalities occurred, as follows:

Conc. (ppm) DO pH
2642 5.2 7
3040 5.1 7

The dissolved oxygen (ppm) and pH was recorded at 1-6 hours
for solutions where mortalities occurred, as follows:

Conc. (ppm) DO pH
2740 9.1 7


The summary of reactions following the bubbling of ethyl
chloride into the test vessels:

Conc. Onset Duration Time of
(ppm) Reaction (hrs) (hrs) death (hrs)
1467 Excitable 1 1-6 72
[5*] Surfacing 1 1-6
Sounding 1 1-6
Swimming:
Gyrating 1 1-6
Inverted 1 1-6
On side 1 1-6
Against tank sides on
bottom 1 1-6
Quiescent 48 48
Motionless:
Flaccidity 24 48
2051 Excitable 1 1-6 72
[7*] Surfacing 1 1-6
Sounding 1 1-6
Swimming:
Gyrating 1 1-6
Inverted 1 1-6
On side 1 1-6
Against tank sides on
bottom 1 1-6
Quiescent 48 48
Motionless:
Flaccidity 24 48
2642 Excitable 1 1-6 24
[10*] Surfacing 1 1-6
Sounding 1 1-6
Swimming:
Gyrating 1 1-6
Inverted 1 1-6
On side 1 1-6
Against tank sides on
bottom 1 1-6
Quiescent 48 48
Motionless:
Flaccidity 24 48
3040 Excitable 1 1-6 24
[15*] Surfacing 1 1-6
Sounding 1 1-6
Swimming:
Gyrating 1 1-6
Inverted 1 1-6
On side 1 1-6
Against tank sides on
bottom 1 1-6
Motionless:
Flaccidity 24 no recovery noted
Respiration rate:
Slow 48 no recovery noted
2740 Excitable 1 1-6 1-6
[15*] Surfacing 1 1-6
Sounding 1 1-6
Swimming:
Gyrating 1 1-6
Inverted 1 1-6
On side 1 1-6
Against tank sides on
bottom 1 1-6

Where [*] = bubbling time in minutes

Description of key information

Based on the available data an acute toxicity of chloroethane to fish is not anticipated.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

The toxicity of chloroethane (CAS 75-00-3) was tested in two separate acute toxicity test on the fish species Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) respectively. The test concentrations in both test assays were prepared by bubbling ethyl chloride through an air stone at a constant rate of flow for five determined time periods. Concentrations of ethyl chloride were determined by gas chromatography.

Ten fish of the species Lepomis macrochirus were exposed to test substance concentrations of 1213, 1748, 1728, 2073 and 4495 mg/L for 96 hours. At test termination a LC50 (96 h) of 2250 mg/L (measured) was reported. In the second test assay ten specimen of Micropterus salmoides were exposed to test concentrations of 1467, 2051, 2642, 3040 and 2740 mg/L. The determined LC50 was > 200 mg/L (Hamlin, 1971). A calculation based on VegaNIC version 1.2.0 using 96 hour fathead minnow model version 1.0.7 predicted a LC50 (96 h) of 322.74 mg/L.

Based on the available data an acute toxicity of chloroethane to fish is not anticipated.