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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Study performed according to international guideline (OECD 202) without GLP statement. However, no analytical measurement were performed and the purity of the test substance is missing.
Reason / purpose:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
major: no analytical measurement
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
not applicable
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: 1000 mg of test substance was mixed and dissolved in dilution water. This solution was made up to 1000 mL with dilution water to prepare a stock solution of 1000 mg/L of test substance. For each concentration, the corresponding amount of stock solution of test substance listed below was added to dilution water and made up to 500 mL to give each test solution.
- Eluate: water
- Controls: only water
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): no data
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Water flea
- Strain: no data
- Source: National Institute for Environmental Studies (animals continuously reared at this institute)
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): young animals within 24hours of birth
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): no data
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): no data
- Valve height at study initiation, for shell deposition study (mean and range, SD): no data
- Peripheral shell growth removed prior to test initiation: not applicable
- Method of breeding: no data
- Feeding during test: No feeding

ACCLIMATION
no data

Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
no data
Hardness:
50 mg/L
Test temperature:
Temperature of test solutions was measured at start and end (48 hours after start) of exposure with a Yokogawa Electric Corporation 2455 02temperature meter and ranged over 20+-1°C.
pH:
pH of test solutions was measured at start and end (48 hours after start) of exposure with a pH meter Toa Denpa Co. Ltd. HM-40V and ranged over
7.5-7.7
Dissolved oxygen:
Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) of test solutions were measured at start and end (48 hours after start) of exposure with a
Denki Kagaku Keiki Co Ltd. DOL-10 meter and ranged over 8.3-8.7 mg-O2/L.
Salinity:
not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 0, 100, 180, 320, 560, 1000 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 100 mL glass beaker
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): whole of test solution renewed 24 hours after start of exposure
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates):4
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): 4
- Biomass loading rate: no data

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
no data

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no data
- Photoperiod: 16 L:8 D
- Light intensity: room light

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
The number of Daphnia immobilised 24 and 48 hours after exposure were observed. Animals that were not able to swim within 15 seconds after gentle agitation of the test vessel were considered to be immobilised.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 1.8
- Range finding study: no data
- Test concentrations: 0, 100, 180, 320, 560, 1000 mg/L
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
ca. 180 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
The immobilisation rate 24 hours after exposure was 0% in the control and all other concentrations.
The immobilisation rate 48 hours after exposure was 0% in the control, 100 and 180 mg/L, 20% at 320 and 560 mg/L and 25% at 1000 mg/L.
The median immobilisation concentrations (EC50) of the test substance after 24 and 48 hours' exposure were as listed below.
The maximum no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of the test substance at 24 hours' exposure was above 1000 mg/L, and the NOEC at 48 hours' exposure was 180 mg/L.

Results with reference substance (positive control):
not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
no data

Table: number of Daphnia magna immobilised. Number of test animals: 20 per concentration.

Concentration of test substance

mg/L

Number immobilised (immobilisation rate, %)

24 hours

48 hours

0 (control)

0 (0)

0 (0)

100

0 (0)

0 (0)

180

0 (0)

0 (0)

320

0 (0)

4 (20

560

0 (0)

4 (20)

1000

0 (0)

5 (25)

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The immobilisation rate 48 hours after exposure was 0% in the control, 100 and 180 mg/L, 20% at 320 and 560 mg/L and 25% at 1000 mg/L.
The maximum no observed effect concentration (NOECi) at 48 hours' exposure was 180 mg/L. EC50(48h) are greater than 1000 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The objective of this study was to determine the short term toxicity of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol on Daphnia magna in an acute immobilization test following OECD 202 guideline without GLP. No purity of the test item was reported and no analytical measurement were performed during the test. However, the substance is assumed to be stable in aqueous medium based on the analytical measurements performed during two other studies on algae (Merve, 2010) and fish (Geiger, 1984). The measured concentrations were above 70% of nominal after 72h in an algae test and above 80% after 96h in a fish test. Five different concentrations (100, 180, 320, 560, and 1000 mg/L) and one control were tested on 20 individuals divided in 4 replicates (5 per replicate) under a semi-static regime (the complete test solution was renewed 24 hours after start of exposure). Measured at the beginning and the end of exposure, the test solution had a temperature of 20.0ºC, pH of 7.5 to 7.7 and dissolved oxygen concentration of 8.3 to 8.7 mg/L, which were within the suitable range for daphnid rearing conditions. The results showed that all the validitycriteria were fulfilled. The immobilization rate 48 hours after exposure was 0% in the control, 100 and 180 mg/L, 20% at 320 and 560 mg/L and 25% at 1000 mg/L. The maximum no observed effect concentration (NOEC) at 48 hours exposure was 180 mg/L. The EC50(48h) is greater than 1000 mg/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
No data
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
documentation insufficient for assessment
Remarks:
Study performed according to a French standard with no GLP statement. The study is extracted from a handbook and the really scarce information reported doesn't allow to evaluate the reliability of the result.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: French standard T90301 from January 1983
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia sp.
Details on test organisms:
No details reported.
Test type:
not specified
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
none
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility

Equitox/Kg < 10

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The EC50 (24h) found for Trifluoroethanol is greater than 100 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The aim of the test was to determine the toxicity of 2,2,2 -trifluoroethanol on Daphnia after 24 hours of exposure. An EC50 (24h) and an Equitox parameter corresponding to the toxicity of 1m3 of effluent responsible for 50 % immobilization of daphnies and reported to 1 kg of substance were derived. An EC50 (24 h) > 100 mg/l and an Equinox.kg-1 < 10 were found for Trifluoroethanol. Scarce information reported doesn't allow to evaluate the reliability of the results.

Description of key information

Two studies are available for this endpoint. One study has been performed with 2.2.2-trifluoroethanol on Daphnia magna in an acute immobilization test following OECD 202 guideline without GLP. No purity of the test item was reported and no analytical measurement were performed during the test. However, the substance is assumed to be stable in aqueous medium based on the analytical measurements performed during two other studies on algae (Merve, 2010) and fish (Geiger, 1984). The measured concentrations were above 70% of nominal after 72h in an algae test and above 80% after 96h in a fish test. Five different concentrations and one control were tested on 20 individuals divided in 4 replicates under a semi-static regime.The test conditions (temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration) were within the suitable range for daphnids during the exposure. The results showed that all the validity criteria were fulfilled. The immobilization rate 48 hours after exposure gives a NOEC (48 h) of 180 mg/L and a EC50(48h) greater than 1000 mg/L.

The other study was not performed under standard guideline and is not sufficiently documented to assess the reliability of the results. Additionally, the study reported an EC50 at 24h instead of 48h as requested by current guideline. The result being consistent with the key study (i.e. EC50 (24h) value above 100 mg/L), this study has been selected as a supporting study.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
1 000 mg/L

Additional information