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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1997-06-13 to 1997-12-23
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Version / remarks:
1984
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples were analyzed for lithium in triplicate using a FLM-AAS method developed and validated by the FMC Corporation. Measured concentrations of lithium chloride were calculated by multiplying measured lithium concentrations by 14.427.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Test solutions were prepared by adding the appropriate amounts of lithium chloride (0.0641, 0.1240, 0.2493, 0.5006 and 0.9923 g) directly to five 1 L volumes of dilution water. The resulting nominal concentrations were 64.1, 124, 249, 501, 992 mg LiCl/L. A dilution water control was maintained concurrently with the test solutions.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
Water fleas will be neonates (i.e. <24 hours old) obtained by isolating gravid females from the culture water in food-free dilution water < 24 hours prior to beginning the test.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
No
Hardness:
c(CaCO3) = 82 mg/L
Test temperature:
19.4 to 20.8 °C
pH:
At test initiation: pH 7.1 to 8.6
Remainder of the test: pH 7.0 to 7.1
Dissolved oxygen:
at test initiation: 9.3 mg/L (100 % of saturation)
remainder of the test: 8.4 to 8.9 mg/L (94 to 98 % of saturation)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: control, 64.1, 124, 249, 501 and 992 mg LiCl/L
Measured concentrations: 0.0, 63.4, 123, 249, 501 and 978 mg LiCl/L
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
249 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
LiCl
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 197 and 315 mg/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
63.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
LiCl
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
The 48-hour EC50 was 249 mg/L (based on mean measured concentrations) with 95 % confidence limits of 197 and 315 mg/L. The NOEC was 63.4 mg/L.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The EC50 values were estimated by a computer program (Wheat, 1989) using the following statistical methods: moving average angle, probit, logit, and non-linear interpolation. Confidence limits for EC50 values determined by non-linear interpolation were calculated by binomial probability. The method selected for reporting the test results was determined by the characteristics of the data, i.e. the presence or absence of 0 % and 100 % mortality and the number of concentrations in which mortalities between 0 and 100 % occurred.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48-hour EC50 in Daphnia magna was 249 mg lithium chloride/L (based on mean measured concentrations) with 95 % confidence limits of 197 and 315 mg wm/L. The NOEC was 63.4 mg lithium chloride/L.
Executive summary:

A short-term toxicity test on daphnia with lithium nitrate is not available. Consequently, read-across was applied using study results from lithium chloride.

A static freshwater toxicity test was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of lithium chloride to the water flea, Daphnia magna according to OECD Guideline 202. Mean measured concentrations of lithium chloride ranged from 63.4 to 978 mg/L and from 99 to 109 % of nominal. All test solutions appeared clear and colourless and concentrations remained stable throughout the test. Mortality of the water flea exposed for 48 hours to lithium chloride ranged from 5 % at test concentrations ≤ 123 mg/L to 100 % at greater than or equal to 501 mg/L. One water flea in 63.4 mg/L died as a result of becoming physically stuck to the wall of the test chamber and was not chemically related. Control mortality was 0 %. The 48-hour EC50 was 249 mg/L with 95 % confidence limits of 197 and 315 mg/L. The NOEC was 63.4 mg/L (Toxikon, 1997).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Only handbook or published data was available. Guideline was not indicated.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type: open
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 3 581 mg/L
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Conclusions:
In this static 48-h acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna a LC50 of 3581 mg/L for sodium nitrate was determined.
Executive summary:

A static freshwater toxicity test was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of sodium nitrate to the water flea, Daphnia magna. A 48-h LC50 of 3581 mg/L was determined for sodium nitrate.

Description of key information

The 48-hour EC50 in Daphnia magna was 249 mg lithium chloride/L (based on mean measured concentrations) with 95 % confidence limits of 197 and 315 mg wm/L. The NOEC was 63.4 mg lithium chloride/L. Based on read-across approach a 48-hour EC50 of 405 mg/L could be calculated for lithium nitrate.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
405 mg/L

Additional information

Key study

A short-term toxicity test on daphnia with lithium nitrate is not available. Consequently, read-across was applied using study results from lithium chloride.

A static freshwater toxicity test was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of lithium chloride to the water flea, Daphnia magna according to OECD Guideline 202. Mean measured concentrations of lithium chloride ranged from 63.4 to 978 mg/L and from 99 to 109 % of nominal. All test solutions appeared clear and colourless and concentrations remained stable throughout the test. Mortality of the water flea exposed for 48 hours to lithium chloride ranged from 5 % at test concentrations ≤ 123 mg/L to 100 % at greater than or equal to 501 mg/L. One water flea in 63.4 mg/L died as a result of becoming physically stuck to the wall of the test chamber and was not chemically related. Control mortality was 0 %. The 48-hour EC50 was 249 mg/L with 95 % confidence limits of 197 and 315 mg/L. The NOEC was 63.4 mg/L. (Toxikon, 1997)

Based on read-across approach a 48-hour EC50 of 405 mg/L could be calculated for lithium nitrate.

Supporting data

A static freshwater toxicity test was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of sodium nitrate to the water flea, Daphnia magna. A 48-h LC50 of 3581 mg/L was determined for sodium nitrate. (Dowden et al., 1965)

Based on read-across approach a LC50 of 2612 mg/L was calculated for lithium nitrate.