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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1997-06-13 to 1997-12-23
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Version / remarks:
1992
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples were analyzed for lithium in triplicate using a FLM-AAS method developed and validated by the FMC Corporation. Measured concentrations of lithium chloride were calculated by multiplying measured lithium concentrations by 14.427.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Test solutions were prepared by adding appropriate amounts of lithium chloride (0.56, 1.12, 2.25, 4.50 and 9.00 g) to 9 L volumes of dilution water. The A and B replicates were prepared separately. A control of only dilution water was maintained concurrently with the test solutions.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Rainbow trout used for the test ranged from 24 to 30 mm standard length (mean and standard deviation = 27 +/- 1.6 mm) and from 0.13 to 0.27 g wet weight (mean and standard deviation = 0.2 +/- 0.05 g) as measured from the control fish at test termination. Loading was calculated to be 0.22 g of fish tissue per liter of test solution.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
No
Hardness:
c(CaCO3)= 56 mg/L
Test temperature:
11.9 - 13.4 °C
pH:
The pH of the test solutions was affected by the presence of lithium chloride (i.e., the pH increased as the test substance concentrations increased).
The pH values of all test solutions ranged from 7.5 to 8.7 at test initiation and from 7.0 to 7.5 for the remainder of the test.
Dissolved oxygen:
10.6 to 11.0 mg/L (98 - 102 % of saturation) at test initiation;
≥ 6.6 mg/L (≥ 61 % of saturation) for the remainder of the test
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: Control, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg LiCl/L
Measured concentrations: 0.0, 59.4, 188, 249, 516 and 1021 mg LiCl/L
Details on test conditions:
Not applicable
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
158 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
LiCl
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 118 and 249 mg/L
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
59.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
LiCl
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Details on results:
The 96-hour LC50 was 158 mg/L (based upon mean measured concentrations) with 95 % confidence limits of 118 and 249 mg/L. The NOEC was 59.4 mg/L based on the lack of mortality at this, the lowest, test concentration.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No reference substance control.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The LC50 values were estimated by a computer program using the following statistical methods: moving average angle, probit, logit, and non-linear interpolation. Confidence limits for LC50 values determined by non-linear interpolation were calculated by binomial probability. The method selected for reporting the test results was determined by the characteristics of the data, i.e., the presence or absence of 0 % and 100 % mortality and the number of concentrations in which mortalities between 0 and 100 % occurred.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 96-hour LC50 for lithium chloride was 158 mg/L (based upon mean measured concentrations) with 95 % confidence limits of 118 and 249 mg/L. The NOEC for lithium chloride was 59.4 mg/L based on the lack of mortality at this, the lowest, test concentration.
Executive summary:

A short-term toxicity study on fish with lithium nitrate is not available. Consequently, read-across was applied using a characteristically similar compound, lithium chloride.

A static freshwater toxicity test was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of lithium chloride to rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss according to OECD Guideline 203. Mean measured concentration of lithium chloride ranged from 59.4 to 1021 mg/L and from 94 to 103 % of nominal concentrations. All test solutions appeared clear and colourless and concentrations remained stable throughout the test. The pH of the test solutions was affected by the presence of lithium chloride (i.e. the pH increased as the test substance concentrations increased). The pH values of all test solutions ranged from 7.5 to 8.7 at test initiation and from 7.0 to 7.5 for the remainder of the test. Mortality of the rainbow trout exposed for 96 hours to lithium chloride ranged from 0 % at 59.4 mg/L to 100 % at test concentrations >= 249 mg/L. No mortality occurred in the dilution water control. The 96-hour LC50 was 158 mg/L with 95 % confidence limits of 118 and 249 mg/L. The slope of the concentration response curve could not be calculated using the binomial method. The NOEC was 59.4 mg/L based on a lack of mortality at this, the lowest, test concentration.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Only published data was available. No guideline was indicated.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: rainbow trout
- Source: Rhode Island State Trout Hatching, Perryville, USA
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): 52-80 mm
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 1.154-5.15 g
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Test temperature:
13-16.8 °C
Dissolved oxygen:
Compressed air was supplied for saturation.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM

- Aeration: compressed air
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: reconstituted deionized water

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no data
- Photoperiod: no data

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 8 226 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
NaNO3
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 5768 - 6240
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The median tolerance limits (TLm) and corresponding Confidence Limits were determined with Litchfield and Wilcoxon.
Conclusions:
The 96-h LC50 value for sodium nitrate was 8226 mg/L.
Executive summary:

A static freshwater toxicity test was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of sodium nitrate in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. 10 fishs per vessel were exposed for 96 hours to sodium nitrate. A LC50 value of 8226 mg/L was determined.

Description of key information

The 96-hour LC50 for lithium chloride was 158 mg/L (based upon mean measured concentrations) with 95 % confidence limits of 118 and 249 mg/L. The NOEC for lithium chloride was 59.4 mg/L based on the lack of mortality at this, the lowest, test concentration. Based on read-across approach, the values for the 96-hour LC50 and the overall NOEC are 257 and 97 mg/L for lithium nitrate.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Effect concentration:
257 mg/L

Additional information

Key study

A short-term toxicity study on fish with lithium nitrate is not available. Consequently, read-across was applied using a characteristically similar compound, lithium chloride.

A static freshwater toxicity test was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of lithium chloride to rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss according to OECD Guideline 203. Mean measured concentration of lithium chloride ranged from 59.4 to 1021 mg/L and from 94 to 103 % of nominal concentrations. All test solutions appeared clear and colourless and concentrations remained stable throughout the test. The pH of the test solutions was affected by the presence of lithium chloride (i.e. the pH increased as the test substance concentrations increased). The pH values of all test solutions ranged from 7.5 to 8.7 at test initiation and from 7.0 to 7.5 for the remainder of the test. Mortality of the rainbow trout exposed for 96 hours to lithium chloride ranged from 0 % at 59.4 mg/L to 100 % at test concentrations >= 249 mg/L. No mortality occurred in the dilution water control. The 96-hour LC50 was 158 mg/L with 95 % confidence limits of 118 and 249 mg/L. The slope of the concentration response curve could not be calculated using the binomial method. The NOEC was 59.4 mg/L based on a lack of mortality at this, the lowest, test concentration. (Toxikon, 1997)

Based on read-across approach, the values for the 96-hour LC50 and the overall NOEC are 257 and 97 mg/L for lithium nitrate.

Supporting data

A static freshwater toxicity test was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of sodium nitrate in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. 10 fishs per vessel were exposed for 96 hours to sodium nitrate. A LC50 value of 8226 mg/L was determined. (Westin, 1974)

Based on read-across the 96-h LC50 for lithium nitrate was calculated to be 6000 mg/L.