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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1997-06-13 to 1998-02-24
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Version / remarks:
1984
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Test substance concentrations were determined directly in the control and in all test treatments at test initiation and termination. Water samples were collected from midway in the water column of each chamber using volumetric pipets. At test initiation, 150 mL were removed from prepared solutions prior to distribution to replicate test chambers. At test termination, 50 mL were removed from each replicate test chamber and composited (200 mL total volume). The water samples were packaged at < 4 °C and shipped overnight to FMC Corporation for chemical analysis.
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
Test solutions for the definitive tests were prepared by adding the appropriate amounts of lithium bromide solution (0.0596, 0.1187, 0.2373, 0.4753, and 0.9504 g) directly to five different 950 mL volumes of dilution water. The resulting concentrations were 62.7, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg LiBr/L. A dilution water control was maintained concurrently with the test solutions.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, Minnesota, US
- Age at study initiation: less than 24 hours
- Method of breeding: A subculture of adults was isolated and maintained prior to testing. Less than 24 hours prior to test initiation, the adults were re-isolated in food-free dilution water. The neonates were collected for test initiation.

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 8 days
- Acclimation conditions: same as test conditions
- Type and amount of food: green algae, Selenastrum capricornutum; and a solution prepared from yeast, cereal leaves, and trout chow (YCT)
- Feeding frequency: daily
- Health during acclimation: No ephippia were produced during culture and adults produced an average of 2.0 young per adult per day.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
no
Hardness:
62 mg/L
Test temperature:
20.2-20.9 °C
pH:
7.3 - 8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
7.5 -8.9 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 62.5, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 mg LiBr/L
mean measured concentrations: 64.3, 129, 258, 513, and 1033 mg LiBr/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: crystallizing dishes
- Type: closed
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 10 cm diameter x 5 cm height, 300 mL
- Aeration: no aeration during the test.
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 3
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1
- Biomass loading rate: 25 water fleas per liter of solution

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was a moderately hard freshwater. The water originated from the town of Jupiter and was treated by vigorous aeration, filtered to 20 micrometers, passed through activated carbon, and re-aerated prior to use
- Total organic carbon: 3.2 mg/L
- Pesticides: < 1.0 µg/L
- Chlorine: 92 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 12 mg/L
- Conductivity: 428 µS
- Culture medium different from test medium: no

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: No
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light and 8 hours dark
- Light intensity: 23.0-48.5 micromols/m^2/sec

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED:
Survival of daphnids was monitored daily and any dead or immobilized animals were removed. Any abnormalities in the behavior or physical appearance of daphnids were also noted.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
Range finding study:
- Test concentrations: 0.10, 1.00, 10.0, 100 and 1000 mg LiBr/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: Ten water fleas were tested at each concentration. After 48 hours of exposure, mortality of water fleas in the range-finding test was 0 % at all test concentrations < 10 mg/L, 30 % at 100 mg/L, and 100 % at 1000 mg/L. Control mortality was 0 %. Based upon the results of this range-finding test, nominal test concentrations as stated above were selected for the definitive test.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
364 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: Lower limit 258 mg/L, Upper limit 513 mg/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
129 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: no
- Mortality of control: 0 %
- Other adverse effects control: no
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Based on the results of the test, the 24- and 48-hour EC50 values and their 95 %-confidence limits were calculated. The EC50 values were estimated by a computer program using the following statistical methods: moving average angle, probit, logit, and non-linear interpolation. Confidence limits for EC50 values determined by non-linear interpolation were calculated by binomial probability. The method selected for reporting the test results was determined by the characteristics of the data, i.e., the presence or absence of 0 % and 100 % mortality and the number of concentrations in which mortalities between 0 and 100 % occurred.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Lithium bromide was tested for acute toxicity to freshwater invertebrates in a 48h-static test. A LC50 of 364 mg/L and a NOEC of 129 mg/L have been derived.
Executive summary:

Lithium bromide was assessed in a short-term toxicity study with invertebrates according to OECD guideline 202. Daphnia magna neonates were exposed to the test item in a static test for 48h at mean measured concentrations of 64.3, 129, 258, 513, and 1033 mg LiBr/L. Mortality of the water flea ranged from 0 % at concentration ≤ 258 mg/L to 100 % at concentration ≥ 513 mg/L. Control mortality was zero %. A 48-hour LC50 of 364 mg/L has been derived. The no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC) was 129 mg/L. (Toxikon, 1998)

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1997-06-13 to 1998-08-13
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OTS 797.1930 (Mysid Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Test substance concentrations were determined directly in the control and all test treatments at test initiation and termination. Water samples were collected from midway in the water column of each chamber using volumetric pipets. At test initiation, 200 mL were removed from prepared solutions prior to distribution to replicate test chambers. At test termination, 100 mL were removed from each replicate test chamber and composited (200 mL total volume). The water samples were packaged at < 4°C and shipped overnight to FMC Corporation for chemical analysis.
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
Test solutions were prepared by adding and vigorously mixing appropriate amounts of lithium bromide solution (0.1376, 0.2753, 0.5498, 1.1010, and 2.2001 g) directly to 2.2-L volumes of dilution water. The test solutions were equally divided between the two replicates after chemical sampling (200 mL). A dilution water control was maintained concurrently with the test solutions.
Test organisms (species):
Americamysis bahia (previous name: Mysidopsis bahia)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Mysid shrimp
- Source: Toxikon Environmental Sciences
- Age at study initiation: < 24h

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 17 days
- Acclimation conditions: same as test conditions
- Type and amount of food: live brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii (hatched from cysts obtained from Aquarium Products, Glen Burnie, MD)
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Mysids appeared to be in good health at test initiation.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
no
Test temperature:
23.2 - 24.7 °C
pH:
8.3 - 8.4
Dissolved oxygen:
≥ 5.5 mg/L
Salinity:
19 - 22 ‰
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal concentrations: 62.5, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 mg LiBr/L
mean measured concentrations: 62.1, 126, 251, 501, and 995 mg LiBr/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: culture dish
- Type: closed
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass, 19 cm diameter x 6.5 cm height, 1 L
- Aeration: was not utilized during the test
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was natural saltwater pumped from a shallow well. The saltwater was vigorously aerated and then filtered, carbon treated, and adjusted to a salinity of approximately 20 ‰ with carbon-treated, aerated laboratory freshwater. This salinity adjusted saltwater was re-aerated prior to use.
- Total organic carbon: < 1.66 mg/L
- Pesticides: < 1.0 µg/L
- Chlorine: 13200 mg/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: no

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no
- Photoperiod: 14 hours light and 10 hours dark.
- Light intensity: 2.5 - 5.2 micromols/m^2/sec

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED:
Survival of mysids was monitored daily and any dead mysids observed were removed. Any abnormalities in the behavior or physical appearance of the mysids were also noted.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 0.10, 1.00, 10.0, 100, and 1000 mg LiBr/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: After 96 hours of exposure, mortality of juvenile mysids in the range-finding test was 0 % in all test concentrations except 10 and 1000 mg/L, which had a mortality of 10 %. Mortality of young adult mysids was 0 % in all test concentrations. Mortality in both controls was 0 %. Based upon these results, nominal test concentrations of 62.5, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 mg LiBr/L were selected for the definitive test, and juvenile mysids were utilized.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 995 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
501 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Based on the results of the test, the definite 96-hour LC50 value and its 95 percent confidence limits could not be calculated.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
A LC50 value of > 995 mg/L and a NOEC value of 501 mg/L was determined for lithium bromide under the conditions of this acute toxicity 96-h static test to saltwater invertebrates.
Executive summary:

Lithium bromide was assessed in a short-term toxicity study for invertebrates according to EPA OTS guideline 797.1930. Juvenile Mysid shrimps (salt water invertebrates) were exposed to the test item in a static test for 96h at mean measured concentrations of 62.1, 126, 251, 501, and 995 mg LiBr/L. Mortality of the Mysids ranged from 0 percent at concentrations < 501 mg/L to 5 percent at test concentration of 995 mg/L. No mortality occurred in the dilution water control. The 96-hour LC50 was >995 mg/L. The no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC) was 501 mg/L based on a lack of mortality at this test concentrations and lower. (Toxikon, 1998)

Description of key information

In the key study lithium bromide was tested for acute toxicity to freshwater invertebrates in a 48h-static test. A LC50 value of 364 mg/L and a NOEC value of 129 mg/L were determined.  In the supporting study lithium bromide was tested for acute toxicity to saltwater invertebrates in a 96h-static test. A LC50 value of > 995 mg/L and a NOEC value of 501 mg/L were determined.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
364 mg/L

Marine water invertebrates

Marine water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
995 mg/L

Additional information

Key study

Lithium bromide was assessed in a short-term toxicity study for invertebrates according to OECD guideline 202. Daphnia magna neonates were exposed to the test item in a static test for 48h at mean measured concentrations of 64.3, 129, 258, 513, and 1033 mg LiBr/L. Mortality of the water flea ranged from 0 percent at concentration ≤ 258 mg/L to 100 percent at concentration ≥ 513 mg/L. Control mortality was zero percent. A 48-hour LC50 of 364 mg/L has been derived. The no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC) was 129 mg/L. (Toxikon, 1998)

Supporting study

Lithium bromide was assessed in a short-term toxicity study for invertebrates according to EPA OTS guideline 797.1930. Juvenile Mysid shrimps were exposed to the test item in a static test for 96h at mean measured concentrations of 62.1, 126, 251, 501, and 995 mg LiBr/L. Mortality of the Mysids ranged from 0 percent at concentrations < 501 mg/L to 5 percent at test concentration of 995 mg/L. No mortality occurred in the dilution water control. The 96-hour LC50 was >995 mg/L. The no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC) was 501 mg/L based on a lack of mortality at this and lower test concentrations. (Toxikon, 1998)