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Diss Factsheets

Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to fish

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Administrative data

fish short-term toxicity test on embryo and sac-fry stages
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Study not to guideline or GLP, but sufficient detail to make an assessment. Study using manganese chloride

Data source

Reference Type:
Aquatic toxicology of trace elements of coal and fly ash.
Birge WJ
Bibliographic source:
In: Thorp JH, Gibbons JW, eds. Energy and environmental stress in aquatic systems. Augusta, GA, US Department of Energy, pp. 219–240 (US Department of Energy Symposium Series 48; CONF-771114).

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Fish and amphibian eggs were exposed to each of 22 selected coal elements from fertilization through 4 days post-hatching, giving treatment periods of 28 days for trout and 7 days for the narrow-mouthed toad and goldfish
GLP compliance:

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
manganese chloride
manganese chloride

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:

Test solutions

Details on test solutions:
Depending on the degree of anticipated toxicity, exposure concentrations were initiated at 10 to 100 ppm and continued at two- to tenfold dilutions until survival of experimental animals equaled or approached that observed for controls. Each coal element was administered at 10 to 14 exposure levels.

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Semistatic embryolarval bioassays were performed on the goldfish (Carassius auratus), the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), and the narrow-mouthed toad (Gastrophryne carolinensis).

Study design

Test type:
Water media type:
Total exposure duration:
28 d
Post exposure observation period:
Eggs were exposed to coal elements from fertilization through 4 days posthatching, giving treatment periods of 7 days for toads and goldfish and 28 days for trout. Test organisms were examined daily to tabulate frequencies of mortality and teratogenesis. Control adjusted values were calculated for combined test responses by log probit analysis (Daum, 1969). Anomalous survivors were counted as lethals. Control eggs were cultured simultaneously with experimentals and under identical conditions, except for omission of toxic coal elements. Minimum sample size was set at 150 eggs per culture.

Test conditions

Mean water hardness, with standard error, was 195 ± 5.4 ppm CaCO3 for goldfish and toad stages and 104 ± 2.0 for trout.
Test temperature:
Water temperature was 13.0 ± 0.5°C for trout eggs and 22.0 ± 1.0°C for other species.
Test water pH averaged 7.4 ± 0.1
Dissolved oxygen:
Dissolved oxygen was maintained near saturation by continuous, moderate aeration
Details on test conditions:
Test water and toxicant were renewed at regular 12-hr intervals. .

Results and discussion

Effect concentrations
28 d
Dose descriptor:
Effect conc.:
2.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
Basis for effect:
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 1.85-4.37

Any other information on results incl. tables


Animal                 LC50                   Confidence limit            

Species                  ppm                     Lower       Upper   

Trout                    2.91                      1.85           4.37                     

Goldfish               8.22                       2.39         24.6                      

Toad                     1.42                      0.84         2.40                     

Applicant's summary and conclusion

The 28-day LC50 (embryo-larval test) for manganese ion was 2.9 mg/l