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Environmental fate & pathways

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Based on log Kow (14, 12-calculated), squalene can be considered as bioaccumulative, nevertheless several estimation models gives BCF values between 1 and 4 L/Kg ww. Squalene is omni-present in the environment and is found in animals and plants alike. It is a naturally occurring triterpenic hydrocarbon, which occurs in all plants and animals, including humans. Squalene has a function as a precursor for phyto- and zoosterols, the most commonly known of which is cholesterol and as such has an essential function in the build up of, for instance, biological membranes. Besides being present in and on the human body, squalene can also be found in shark liver and cod liver, in relatively high content, and in a variety of plants used for food stuffs such as olive tree (olive oil contains 0.7% squalene, Department of Defence, s.d.), 499 mg squalene/100g oil, Khallouki, et al., 2003), Argan tree (Argan oil contains 313 mg squalene/100g oil, Khallouki, et al., 2003), eggs, meat and yeast, to name but a few