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PBT assessment

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PBT assessment: overall result

PBT status:
the substance is not PBT / vPvB

Rosin and rosin salts are UVCB substances and the main constituents for all category members are resin acids and/or their salts. Oligomers of resin acids (mainly dimers) can also be present in rosin and rosin salt substances.As all the substances in Category 1 contain the same constituentsa single PBT assessment covering all of the constituents in this category is warranted.

There is little detailed analytical data available on the individual constituents found in substances in this category. However, the families or blocks of constituents present are known, as reflected in the Substance Identity Profiles. Constituents that are thought to be present in each block were identified by cross-referring to detailed analytical data which is available for H4R Category 8 substances: Fatty acids, tall-oil, low-boiling (CAS No. 65997-03-7), Tall-oil pitch (CAS No. 8016-81-7), and Tall oil (CAS No. 8002-26-4) and These constituents were used as the basis for this assessment of PBT/vPvB properties of the substances. The substances within this category are rosin, hydrogenated rosin and mono-, di- and tri-valent salts of rosin which are aseries of structurally related compounds. The main constituents of all the category members share the same basic chemistry, primarily resin acids (which fall into three skeletal classes: abietane, isopimarane and labdane), fatty acids, rosin dimer, trimers and higher oligomers, and a neutral fraction. Some of the substances also contain inorganic salts of the acids and the PBT and vPvB criteria are not applicable to these substances. Furthermore, three substances are reaction products of rosin acids with formaldehyde (and their salts). The blocks and their representative constituents that were assessed are listed inTable1.

Table1Blocks present in this category and representative structures for each block.



Abietane type

Abietic acid

Neoabietic acid

Palustric acid

Levopimaric acid

Dehydroabietic acid

Hydroabietic acid

Pimarane and isopimarane types

Pimaric acid

7,15-pimaradienoic acid

Delta Pimaric acid

Isopimaric acid

Sandaracopiramic acid

Delta Isopimaric acid

Labdane type

Communic acid

Anticopatic acid

Lambertiaric acid

Mercusic acid

Acetylisocupressic acid

Acetylimbricataloic acid

Imbricataloic acid


Dimerised Rosin

Dimer of abietic acid cross-linked by reaction formaldehyde

Hydrogenated Rosin

Abietic acid, hydrogenated

Pimaric acid, hydrogenated

Fatty acids 


16:0 fatty acid

16:1 fatty acid

18:1 fatty acid (9)

18:2 fatty acid (9,12)

18:3 fatty acid (5,9,12)

20:3 fatty acid (5,11,14 + 7,11,14)

Dihydro (combined)

Dihydroabietic acid

Tetrahydro (combined)

Tetrahydroabietic acid

Dehydro abietic acid

Dehydroabietic acid

Neutral fraction (including decarboxylated rosin)












Methyldehydroabietic acid

Methyldehydroabietic acid

Trimers and Higher Oligomers 


Trimer of abietic acid cross-linked by reaction formaldehyde

24:0 OH-monoester with Abietic acid dimer 1 (Diels-Alder)

Abietol-monoester with Abietic acid dimer 1 (Diels-Alder)

Pimarol-monoester with Abietic acid dimer 1 (Diels-Alder)

24:0 OH-diester with Abietic acid dimer 1 (Diels-Alder)

Abietol-diester with Abietic acid dimer 1 (Diels-Alder)

C24:0 OH-Abietic dimer 1-Betulinol-Abietic dimer 1-Betulinol-C18:1 FA

C24:0 OH-C18:2 FA dimer-Betulinol-C18:2 FA dimer-Betulinol-C18:1 FA

Pimarol-diester with Abietic acid dimer 1 (Diels-Alder)

Sitosterol-diester with Abietic acid dimer 1 (Diels-Alder)

24:0 OH-Abietic acid

Abietol-C18:1 FA




Methyl Betulinate-C16:0

Pimarol-Abietic acid




There is an OECD 301B ready biodegradation study available for Abietal which is one of the Neutral Fraction Aldehydes which showed that Abietal is not persistent. This data can be read-across to the other Neutral Aldehydes and therefore these are not considered persistent. The persistence assessment of the other constituents relies on the BIOWIN QSARs. Seven constituents, however, were too large to calculate the QSARs these have therefore been assumed to be persistent as a worst case. This data indicates that 12 of the 62 constituents are either not P or Predicted not P the remaining 50 constituents are Predicted P.


Of the 62 constituents that required further assessment, eight had experimental data that showed that they were not bioaccumulative. Five of the constituents (Neutral Aldehydes) were predicted to potentially be B/vB. The remaining 50 constituents they all reported BCFs <2000 L/kg. In addition, 32 of the constituents were reported to have a Log Kow of >10 and/or a Dmaxavof >1.7, which offers greater confidence that these substances are not expected to be bioaccumulative (see Appendix 3). As a result, the 62 constituents were concluded to be Predicted Not B.


As all of the consituents assessed are not bioaccumulative an assessment of T is not warranted.