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Eye irritation

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eye irritation: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2010-11-29 to 2010-11-30
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference Type:
study report
Report date:

Materials and methods

Test guideline
according to guideline
OECD Guideline 437 (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants)
Version / remarks:
7 September 2009
GLP compliance:

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
(8Z)-16-{[(2R,4S,5S)-6-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-3-{[(2S,4S,5S)-6-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxan-2-yl]oxy}-4,5-dihydroxyoxan-2-yl]oxy}heptadec-8-enoic acid; [(1S,4S,5S,8R,17Z,27S,31R)-28-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-4,5,30,31-tetrahydroxy-10-methyl-25-oxo-2,7,9,26,29-pentaoxatricyclo[³,⁸]hentriacont-17-en-6-yl]methyl acetate
EC Number:
(8Z)-16-{[(2R,4S,5S)-6-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-3-{[(2S,4S,5S)-6-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxan-2-yl]oxy}-4,5-dihydroxyoxan-2-yl]oxy}heptadec-8-enoic acid; [(1S,4S,5S,8R,17Z,27S,31R)-28-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-4,5,30,31-tetrahydroxy-10-methyl-25-oxo-2,7,9,26,29-pentaoxatricyclo[³,⁸]hentriacont-17-en-6-yl]methyl acetate

Test animals / tissue source

not specified
Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
- Source: slaughterhouse, not specified
- Calf eyes were excised as soon as possible after slaughter. Care was taken to avoid damaging the cornea during the enucleation procedure. Eyes were collected in a plastic container containing 1 L of sterile Hanks's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS). Medium storage and transportation of eyes to the laboratory was performed at room temperature. The eyes were used within 3 hours after slaughter.

Test system

physiological saline
yes, concurrent vehicle
yes, concurrent positive control
Amount / concentration applied:
- Amount(s) applied: 0.75 mL
- Concentration: 10 % solution of test item prepared in 0.9 % sodium chloride
For further details, please refer to section "any other information on materials and methods incl. tables".

Duration of treatment / exposure:
10 ± 1 minutes
Observation period (in vivo):
120 (+/-) 10 minutes
Number of animals or in vitro replicates:
Details on study design:
- Washing (if done): at least three times(until the medium was clear with approximately 4 ml of EMEM solution
- Time after start of exposure: 130 minutes
For further details, please refer to section "any other information on materials and methods incl. tables".

Results and discussion

In vitro

Irritation parameter:
in vitro irritation score
Run / experiment:
mean of 3 replicates
ca. 32.3
Vehicle controls validity:
Negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
Other effects / acceptance of results:
- Visible damage on test system: no abnormalities.
- Acceptance criteria met for solvent control: yes
- Acceptance criteria met for positive control: yes

Any other information on results incl. tables


For each exposure condition, three corneas were visually inspected and showed no abnormalities. Three corneas were treated with 0.9 % sodium chloride as solvent/vehicle control. The IVIS of 0.9 % sodium chloride was -0.2 ± 0.4 (-0.6 to 0.2) with a mean opacity value of -0.2 ± 0.4 (-0.6 to 0.2) and a mean permeability value of 0.001 ± 0.001 (0.001 to 0.002).

Three corneas were selected for treatment with the positive control 100 % N,N-dimethylformamide. Treatment resulted in a mean IVIS of 100.5 ± 9.9. The corrected mean value of the opacity was 81.9 ± 6.0, ranging from 76.4 to 88.3. The corrected mean value of the permeability was 1.240 ± 0.340, ranging from 0.890 to 1.570. Before starting the permeability test, the dye solution sodium fluorescein was checked for its quality. The dye solution is valid for use, if a dilution of the stock solution containing 10 µg/mL gave the correct concentration on the calibration curve (acceptable range OD490: 1.75 ± 0.2). The average concentration of 2 measurements calculated by the spectrophotometer was 1.7797 µg/mL (OD 1.7692 and OD 1.7902) and thus valid for use. This means that the test conditions were optimal to determine the irritating potential of test item.

Three corneas were selected for treatment with the test item. Treatment resulted in a mean IVIS of 32.3 ± 5.8 after 10 minutes treatment, ranging from 28.2 to 38.9. The net value of the opacity score ranged from 2.6 to 4.4, the mean value was 3.8 ± 1.0. The mean corrected permeability value of the corneas was 1.900 ± 0.372, ranging from 1.583 to 2.310.

 Treatment Mean opacity  Mean permeability  Mean in vitro irritation score 
 Negative control  0.2 (+/-) 0.4  0.001  (+/-) 0.001  - 0.2  (+/-) 0.4
 Positive control  81.9 (+/-) 6.0  1.240  (+/-) 0.340  100.5  (+/-) 9.9
 Test substance  3.8  (+/-) 1.0  1.9  (+/-) 0.372  32.3  (+/-) 5.8

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
other: Expert judgement: not Category 1
The eye irritancy potential of the test substance was investigated in the bovine corneal opacity and permeability assay. The following mean in vitro irritation score was calculated: 32.3 ± 5.8. No prediction can be made regarding the classification of the test substance to the evaluation criteria. For precautionary reasons, the test substance is classified as Category 2.
Executive summary:

In an ex vivo eye irritation guideline study (bovine corneal opacity and permeability assay) according to OECD 437 under GLP conditions, 0.75 mL of a 10 % solution of “Sophorolipids: fermentation products of glucose and fatty acids, C18-unsatd., esters with glycerol with yeast Candida Bombicola, partially hydrolysed” in physiological saline was applied on corneas for 10 min at 32 °C. The test was performed in triplicates.

Physiological saline was used as negative control, N,N-dimethylformamide as positive control. Both controls confirmed the validity of the study.

In this study, the mean in vitro irritation score was 32.3 ± 5.8. According to the guideline, no prediction can be made using this value. For precautionary measures, “Sophorolipids: fermentation products of glucose and fatty acids, C18-unsatd., esters with glycerol with yeast Candida Bombicola, partially hydrolysed” is classified voluntarily as irritating to eyes (GHS Category 2).