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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
GLP status can not be verified. However, since terrestrial plants are not indicated to be the most susceptible terrestrial organisms this restrictions is considered to be acceptable
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
not specified
Remarks:
Being a publication the GLP status can not be verified. However, since terrestrial plants are not indicated to be the most susceptible terrestrial organisms this restrictions is considered to be acceptable
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of mixing into soil (if used):The test substance was applied to soil dissolved in acetone. To prepare the concentrations, the amount of soil to be
used for each concentration was moistened with a fixed volume of acetone solution containing the appropriate quantity of the test substance. Prior to the addition of acetone, and for each concentration prepared, a small portion of the untreated soil (20%) was kept aside in order to reinoculate the polluted soil once the acetone had evaporated.
- Controls: Two control soils were prepared, one to which the same volume of acetone was added and another one to which acetone was not added and that served to detect any noxious effect directly linked to the acetone addition.
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): acetone
- Evaporation of vehicle before use: Acetone was left to evaporate for 24 h in a fume hood.
Species:
Lolium perenne
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Species:
Brassica rapa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Test type:
other: germination and biomass production
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
15 d
Test temperature:
21 °C
pH:
6.2
Moisture:
60% of max water-holding capacity
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (type, material, size): 250 mL polyethylene cup filled with 100 g soil (dw)
- No. of seeds per container: 10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 5
- No. of replicates per control: 5
- No. of replicates per vehicle control: 5

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- % sand: 45.7
- % silt: 31.8
- % clay: 16.3
- Composition (if artificial substrate): The artificial soil was prepared according to OECD (1984) by mixing Sphagnum peat (10%), kaoline (20%), and quartz sand. Soil pH was adjusted to 6±0.5 with the addition of calcium carbonate.
- Organic carbon (%): 3.45
- CEC: 8.94 meq/100g

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16h light/ 8h dark

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Germination and seedling biomass was recorded after 15 days exposure time.

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study: yes
- Test concentrations: 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000 mg/kg
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: The range of concentrations showing an inhibition between 10% and 90% were selected for the definitive assay.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: not specified. A preliminary assay consisted of 0, 1, 10, 100, 1,000, and 10,000 mg/kg. The range of concentrations showing an inhibition between 10% and 90% were selected for the definitive assay.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
15 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1 449.1 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: fresh weight
Remarks on result:
other: EC50 (germination) = 8159.2 mg/kg
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
15 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
574.8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: fresh weight
Remarks on result:
other: EC10 (germination = 695.9 mg/kg
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
15 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
738.9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: fresh weight
Remarks on result:
other: EC10 (germination) = 1385.8 mg/kg
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
15 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
4 011.6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: fresh weight
Remarks on result:
other: EC50 (germination) = 7500.7 mg/kg
Details on results:
The germination rates in OECD soil for B. rapa and L. perenne were over 95%. The fresh weight of the control seedlings was 854 ± 119 and 219 ± 22 mg, respectively, with no signs of nutrient deficiency. No tests were carried out in natural soils because in plants NP generally showed inhibitory effects over 1 g/kg in OECD soil in the preliminary test. This is the concentration above which a pollutant is not considered as toxic according to the test protocol used in this study.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Strong inhibition effects on germination and fresh weight (EC50) were only observed at very high concentrations (>1 g/kg), too high levels to consider these chemicals as phytotoxic according to OECD criteria.
Executive summary:

The toxicity of 4-nonylphenol to terrestrial plants was investigated according to OECD guideline 208 using L. perenne and B. rapa as test organisms. Artificial soil according to OECD was used. Germination and biomass production was recorded after an exposure time of 15 days. Fresh weight was found to be a more sensitive endpoint than germination. However, all 15d-EC50 value showed to be > 1g/kg, which is not considered as toxic according to OECD criteria. The lowest 15d-EC10 value is determined to be 574.8 mg/kg dw.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
GLP status can not be verified. However, since terrestrial plants are not indicated to be the most susceptible terrestrial organisms this restrictions is considered to be acceptable.
Justification for type of information:
Analogue justification attached (chapter 13)
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Key result
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
15 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1 449.1 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: fresh weight
Remarks on result:
other: EC50 (germination) = 8159.2 mg/kg
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
15 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
574.8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: fresh weight
Remarks on result:
other: EC10 (germination = 695.9 mg/kg
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
15 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
738.9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: fresh weight
Remarks on result:
other: EC10 (germination) = 1385.8 mg/kg
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
15 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
4 011.6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: fresh weight
Remarks on result:
other: EC50 (germination) = 7500.7 mg/kg

Description of key information

EC10 (15d) = 574.8 mg/kg (nominal, fresh weight) for Brassica rapa (OECD 208, read across)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for terrestrial plants:
574.8 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information

Since no study assessing the toxicity of Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched (CAS 174333-80-3) to terrestrial plants is available, in accordance to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 Annex XI, 1.5 Grouping of substances, a read-across to Phenol, 4-nonyl-,branched was conducted, which is a secondary component and structurally similar to the main component of the substance. The only structural difference between the source substance and the target substance is the lack of an aldoxime group at the phenol ring of the molecule.

The read across is justified due to the following reasons:

1) The similarity of structure and functional groups and accordingly similar physico-chemical properties result in similar environmental behavior and fate.

2) Based on a profound ecotoxicological data set available for Phenol, 4-nonyl-,branched it can be concluded that Phenol, 4-nonyl-,branched exhibit an equal to slightly higher aquatic toxicity compared to Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched (see table below). Therefore, using data from Phenol, 4-nonyl-,branched for the assessment of the intrinsic hazard of Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched is considered to be a conservative approach (worst case scenario).

Substance

Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched

Phenol, 4-nonyl, branched*

CAS number

174333-80-3

84852-15-3

Structure

see attachment (chapter 6.3)

 see attachment (chapter 6.3)

Molecular formula

C16O2NH25

C15H24O

Molecular weight

~ 263 g/mole

~ 220.35 g/mole

PC parameter

 

 

Water solubility

0.4 mg/L (EU method A.6)

5.7 mg/L (ASTM E 1148-02)

Partition coefficient

5.5 (EU method A.8)

5.4 (OECD 117)

Vapour pressure

0.37 Pa at 20 °C (OECD 104)

~1 Pa at 20 °C (ASTM-D 2879)

Environmental fate

 

 

Biodegradability

0 % in 28 days (OECD 302c)

non-adapted inoculum:

0 % in 28 days (OECD 301B)

 

adapted inoculum:

48.2-62 % in 28 days (OECD 301B)

Adsorption [log KOC]

3.7 (OECD 121)

4.35 - 5.69 (EPA OTS 796.2750)

Hydrolysis

not relevant

Ecotoxicology

 

 

Short-term toxicity to fish

[96h-LC50]

1.1 mg/L (EU method C.1)

0.05 – 0.22 mg/L (different methods)

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

[NOEC]

0.005 mg/L (OECD 210)

0.006 mg/L (ASTM E 1241-05)

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

[48h-EC50]

2.7 mg/L (EU method C.2)

0.08 – 0.14 mg/L (different methods)

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

[21d-NOEC]

0.189 mg/L (OECD 211)

0.024 - 0.116 mg/L (different methods)

Short-term toxicity to algae

[72h-EC50]

36.3 mg/L (OECD 201)

0.33 - 1.3 mg/L (different methods)

Long-term toxicity to algae

[72h-NOEC/EC10]

14.9 mg/L (OECD 201)

0.5 mg/L (Algal growth inhibition test according to UBA 1984)

Toxicity to microorganisms

[EC50]

200.4 mg/L (OECD 209)

950 mg/L (OECD 209)

* Data were taken from Phenol, 4-nonyl-,branched (CAS 84852-15-3) dossier published on the ECHA data base

 

The toxicity of 4-nonylphenol to terrestrial plants was investigated according to OECD guideline 208 using L. perenne and B. rapa as test organisms (Domene et al. 2009). Artificial soil according to OECD was used. Germination and biomass production was recorded after an exposure time of 15 days. Fresh weight was found to be a more sensitive endpoint than germination. All 15d-EC50 value showed to be > 1 g/kg. 15d-EC10 values are determined to be 574.8 mg/kg for Brassica rapa and 738.9 mg/kg for Lolium perenne, respectively. Based on the reasons given above the 15d-EC10 of 574.8 mg/kg for Brassica rapa is considered to be sufficiently conservative to be used for the hazard assessment of Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched (CAS 174333-80-3).