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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations:0 - 2.1 g/kg ww
- Sampling method:at the start and at the end of experiment: control + 2.1 g CdTe/kg ww
Vehicle:
no
Species:
Lepidum sativum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name:cress
- Source of seed:Commercial seed: Batch 11K001, SomElitePlus 11 K03880-exp01/2016
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: commercial soil
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
8 d
Test temperature:
room temperature: 20.0-22.2°C
pH:
4.6-4.87. pH was adjusted after preparation of the substrate for the test
Details on test conditions:
Test vessels: flower pots in plastic, holes in the bottom surface, placed on individual plates.
Test volumes: pots were filled for 3/4th of the volume (71.3-73.3 g/pot for cress)
Substrate: commercial potting soil was used
AVEVE COMPO SANA – COMPO Benelux - kruidenpotgrond Lot Co932211
Specs: 17% organic Matter, conductivity: 45 mS/m, NPK: 14-16-18, micronutrients 0.9 kg/m³
pH was measured: 4.6-4.87. pH was adjusted to 6.15-6.16 after preparation of the substrate for the test.
DW was measured after preparation of the substrates for the test: 56%
Replicates: 6 replicates
Number of seeds: 10 per vessel.
Conditions: test vessels were placed on individual plates in closed glass conservatories, with a water layer at the bottom to obtain a moist atmosphere. Conservatories were placed at room temperature (variation during the test: 20.0-22.2°C) and light/dark 16/8, with illumination from the top (4686 lux).
A range finding preliminary test was already performed (PLG 11 001: 18-23/11/2011 (cress)). No effects were seen on emergence of either wheat or cress.
A concentration dependent effect on biomass was seen for wheat, but the effect was less than 50% inhibition at the highest test concentration (EC50>1g/kg). No effects were seen on biomass for cress.
From these results it was decided to perform a limit test using 1g/kg Cadmium (=2.1 g/kg test substance).
6.32 g of the test substance was weighed and added to 99.99 g of white sand. Test substance and sand were thoroughly mixed and the mixture was then added to and mixed into 2900 g commercial potting soil (DW appr.55%).
As a control 100 g of pure white sand was added to and mixed into another 2900 kg of commercial potting soil.
DW (Dry Weight) was measured: 56.2% in controls and 55.9 % in test substrate.
pH was measured: 4.6 in controls and 4.87 in test substrate. pH was adjusted with CaCO3 to 6.15 in controls and 6.16 in test substrate.
A sample was taken from each replicate of the test substrate and from one replicate of the control susbstrate. Cadmium was analysed in these samples to verify the test concentration and to evaluate the homogeneity of the spiked substrate.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: control and 2.1 gCdTe/kg
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Species:
Lepidum sativum
Duration:
8 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2.1 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Lepidum sativum
Duration:
8 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cd
Basis for effect:
other: biomass per emerged seed
Species:
Lepidum sativum
Duration:
8 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2.1 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
other: biomass per emerged seed
Species:
Lepidum sativum
Duration:
8 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cd
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence

The spike concentration was 1 g/kg wet weight.

Concentrations of Cd (g/kg DW) in replicate vessels at the start of the test.

No difference was seen between the % of emergence in control or test conditions.

Emerged seeds in control conditions and spiked test substrate

 Cd Te (g/kg DW) mean  % of control  t-test 
 0 10  10  10  10  10  10  10  100  100   
2.1  10  10  10  10   10  9.8  98.3 98.3  0.34 

No effects were seen on biomass per emerged plant for exposed and non exposed plants.

Biomass of emerged seeds at the end of the experiment in control conditions and spiked test substrate

 CdTe (g/kg DW) mean  % of control   t-test
46.1  47.5    37.7  53.4  40.3  45  100   
2.1  34.3  37.4  38  49.7  42.3  40.0  40.3  89.5  0.20 

All plants were healthy in controls and test conditions.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Solid CdTe is not acute toxic to plants when mixed into soil substrate up to concentrations of 2.1 g CdTe/kg DW (or 1 g Cd/kg DW)
Executive summary:

The aim of the test was to assess effects on seedling emergence and early growth of higher plants following exposure to the test substance CdTe mixed into soil. The test was performed according to the OECD guidelings for testing of chemicals 208. Solid CdTe is not acute toxic to plants when mixed into soil substrate up to concentrations of 2.1 g CdTe/kg DW (or 1 g Cd/kg DW).

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations:0 - 2.1 g/kg ww
- Sampling method:at the start and at the end of experiment: control + 2.1 g CdTe/kg ww
Vehicle:
no
Species:
Phaseolus vulgaris
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: bush bean
- Source of seed:Commercial seed: Batch 12AA02 AVEVE - exp. 2014
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: commercial soil
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
19 d
Test temperature:
room temperature: 20.0-22.2°C
pH:
4.6-4.87. pH was adjusted after preparation of the substrate for the test
Details on test conditions:
Test vessels: flower pots in plastic, holes in the bottom surface, placed on individual plates.
Test volumes: pots were filled for 3/4th of the volume (182.18-186.29 g)
Substrate: commercial potting soil was used
AVEVE COMPO SANA – COMPO Benelux - kruidenpotgrond Lot Co932211
Specs: 17% organic Matter, conductivity: 45 mS/m, NPK: 14-16-18, micronutrients 0.9 kg/m³
pH was measured: 4.6-4.87. pH was adjusted to 6.15-6.16 after preparation of the substrate for the test.
DW was measured after preparation of the substrates for the test: 56%
Replicates: 6 replicates
Number of seeds: 10 per vessel.
Conditions: test vessels were placed on individual plates in closed glass conservatories, with a water layer at the bottom to obtain a moist atmosphere. Conservatories were placed at room temperature (variation during the test: 20.0-22.2°C) and light/dark 16/8, with illumination from the top (4686 lux).
A range finding preliminary test was already performed (PLG 11 001: 18-23/11/2011 (cress)). No effects were seen on emergence of either wheat or cress.
A concentration dependent effect on biomass was seen for wheat, but the effect was less than 50% inhibition at the highest test concentration (EC50>1g/kg). No effects were seen on biomass for cress.
From these results it was decided to perform a limit test using 1g/kg Cadmium (=2.1 g/kg test substance).
6.32 g of the test substance was weighed and added to 99.99 g of white sand. Test substance and sand were thoroughly mixed and the mixture was then added to and mixed into 2900 g commercial potting soil (DW appr.55%).
As a control 100 g of pure white sand was added to and mixed into another 2900 kg of commercial potting soil.
DW (Dry Weight) was measured: 56.2% in controls and 55.9 % in test substrate.
pH was measured: 4.6 in controls and 4.87 in test substrate. pH was adjusted with CaCO3 to 6.15 in controls and 6.16 in test substrate.
A sample was taken from each replicate of the test substrate and from one replicate of the control susbstrate. Cadmium was analysed in these samples to verify the test concentration and to evaluate the homogeneity of the spiked substrate.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: control and 2.1 g CdTe/kg
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Species:
Phaseolus vulgaris
Duration:
19 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2.1 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Phaseolus vulgaris
Duration:
19 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cd
Basis for effect:
other: biomass per emerged seed
Species:
Phaseolus vulgaris
Duration:
19 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2.1 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
other: biomass per emerged seed
Species:
Phaseolus vulgaris
Duration:
19 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cd
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence

The spike concentration was 1 g/kg wet weight.

Concentrations of Cd (g/kg DW) in replicate vessels at the start of the test.

 vessel g/kg DW  g/kg substrate 
 pot 12 2.73  1.52 
 pot 10 2.97 1.66
 pot 7 1.73  0.97 


 vessel g/kg DW  g/kg substrate 
 2  0  0
 7  2.52  1.44
 8  0* 0* 
2.16  1.43 
10  1.74  1.21 
11  1.74  1.16 
 12 2.36  1.57 
mean  2.10  1.36 
 SD  0.36  0.18

                                                           

* in pot 8 no Cd was measured. This zero was regarded as an outlier and omitted.

Concentrations of Cd (g/kg DW) at the start and at the end of the test in 3 replicate test vessels from the bean growth test

 vessel start (g/kg DW)   end (g/kg DW)
12  2.73  2.36 
10  2.97  1.74 
1.73  2.52 
mean  2.48  2.20 
SD  0.66  0.41 
VC  26.49  18.74 

It was concluded that the Cd concentration was stable during the test and that the spiking concentrations were sufficiently high and reproducible to make conclustions on the effect of Cd on the germination and growth of seedlings.

                                                         

No difference was seen between the % of emergence in control or test conditions.

Emerged seeds in control conditions and spiked test substrate

 Cd Te (g/kg DW) mean  % of control  t-test 
 0 8 10  10  8.8 88.3 100   
2.1  10  10 10  9  9 90 101.9  0.83 

No effects were seen on biomass per emerged plant for exposed and non exposed plants.

Biomass of emerged seeds at the end of the experiment in control conditions and spiked test substrate

 CdTe (g/kg DW) mean  % of control   t-test
1172.5 757.8  1034.3  1145  701  1081.1  981.9 100   
2.1  1294 943.3  806 948.9  650  758.9  900.2 91.7  0.52 

6 and 10 of 60 plants were classified as uncompletely developed respectively in control and test conditions.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Solid CdTe is not acute toxic to plants when mixed into soil substrate up to concentrations of 2.1 g CdTe/kg DW (or 1 g Cd/kg DW)
Executive summary:

The aim of the test was to assess effects on seedling emergence and early growth of higher plants following exposure to the test substance CdTe mixed into soil. The test was performed according to the OECD guidelings for testing of chemicals 208. Solid CdTe is not acute toxic to plants when mixed into soil substrate up to concentrations of 2.1 g CdTe/kg DW (or 1 g Cd/kg DW).

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations:0 - 2.1 g/kg ww
- Sampling method:at the start and at the end of experiment: control + 2.1 g CdTe/kg ww
Vehicle:
no
Species:
Secale cereale
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name:rye
- Source of seed:Commercial seed:Vitallo, Batch 12A001, AVEVE-E-08-3
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: commercial soil
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
14 d
Test temperature:
room temperature: 20.0-22.2°C
pH:
4.6-4.87. pH was adjusted after preparation of the substrate for the test
Details on test conditions:
Test vessels: flower pots in plastic, holes in the bottom surface, placed on individual plates.
Test volumes: pots were filled for 3/4th of the volume (182.44-188.63 g/pot for rye)
Substrate: commercial potting soil was used
AVEVE COMPO SANA – COMPO Benelux - kruidenpotgrond Lot Co932211
Specs: 17% organic Matter, conductivity: 45 mS/m, NPK: 14-16-18, micronutrients 0.9 kg/m³
pH was measured: 4.6-4.87. pH was adjusted to 6.15-6.16 after preparation of the substrate for the test.
DW was measured after preparation of the substrates for the test: 56%
Replicates: 6 replicates
Number of seeds: 10 per vessel.
Conditions: test vessels were placed on individual plates in closed glass conservatories, with a water layer at the bottom to obtain a moist atmosphere. Conservatories were placed at room temperature (variation during the test: 20.0-22.2°C) and light/dark 16/8, with illumination from the top (4686 lux).
A range finding preliminary test was already performed (PLG 11 001: 18-23/11/2011 (cress)). No effects were seen on emergence of either wheat or cress.
A concentration dependent effect on biomass was seen for wheat, but the effect was less than 50% inhibition at the highest test concentration (EC50>1g/kg). No effects were seen on biomass for cress.
From these results it was decided to perform a limit test using 1g/kg Cadmium (=2.1 g/kg test substance).
6.32 g of the test substance was weighed and added to 99.99 g of white sand. Test substance and sand were thoroughly mixed and the mixture was then added to and mixed into 2900 g commercial potting soil (DW appr.55%).
As a control 100 g of pure white sand was added to and mixed into another 2900 kg of commercial potting soil.
DW (Dry Weight) was measured: 56.2% in controls and 55.9 % in test substrate.
pH was measured: 4.6 in controls and 4.87 in test substrate. pH was adjusted with CaCO3 to 6.15 in controls and 6.16 in test substrate.
A sample was taken from each replicate of the test substrate and from one replicate of the control susbstrate. Cadmium was analysed in these samples to verify the test concentration and to evaluate the homogeneity of the spiked substrate.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: control and 2.1 g CdTe/kg
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Species:
Secale cereale
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2.1 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Secale cereale
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cd
Basis for effect:
other: biomass per emerged seed
Species:
Secale cereale
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2.1 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
other: biomass per emerged seed
Species:
Secale cereale
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Cd
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence

The spike concentration was 1 g/kg wet weight.

Concentrations of Cd (g/kg DW) in replicate vessels at the start of the test.

 vessel g/kg DW  g/kg substrate 
 pot 12 1.71  0.96 
 pot 8 1.38 0.77
pot 10 2.04 1.14 

No difference was seen between the % of emergence in control or test conditions.

Emerged seeds in control conditions and spiked test substrate

 Cd Te (g/kg DW) mean  % of control  t-test 
 0 7 10  8 7.2 71.7 100   
2.1  8 8 7 7.5 75 104.7  0.74

No effects were seen on biomass per emerged plant for exposed and non exposed plants.

Biomass of emerged seeds at the end of the experiment in control conditions and spiked test substrate

 CdTe (g/kg DW) mean  % of control   t-test
225.7 159  228.6  308.8  232.5  205.7 226.7 100   
2.1  308.8 220 215 234.4  215 274.3  244.6 91.7  0.52 

6 and 7 of 60 plants were classified as small respectively in control and test conditions.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Solid CdTe is not acute toxic to plants when mixed into soil substrate up to concentrations of 2.1 g CdTe/kg DW (or 1 g Cd/kg DW)
Executive summary:

The aim of the test was to assess effects on seedling emergence and early growth of higher plants following exposure to the test substance CdTe mixed into soil. The test was performed according to the OECD guidelings for testing of chemicals 208. Solid CdTe is not acute toxic to plants when mixed into soil substrate up to concentrations of 2.1 g CdTe/kg DW (or 1 g Cd/kg DW).

Description of key information

Three plant ecotoxicity studies were performed. No acute effects were seen up to a concentration of 2.1 g CdTe/kg DW or 1 g Cd/kg DW.
As Cd2+ ion determines ecotoxicity, the PNEC deriviation for the terrestrial compartement will be based on the Cd 2+ ion as determined in the RA (ECB 2007).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for terrestrial plants:
2 100 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information

Three limit tests according to the OECD protocol no 208 were performed using Phaseolus vulgaris, Lepidium sativum and Secale cereale as test species. A control and a concentration of 2.1 g CdTe/kg DW or 1 g Cd/kg DW were tested. No effects were seen at this concentration for the three plant species.