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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Temperature during the test is 22 ± 0.5 °C instead of the OECD recommended value of 20 ± 2 °C.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Temperature during the test is 22 ± 0.5 °C instead of the OECD recommended value of 20 ± 2 °C. This deviation is due on the one hand to the limited possibilities of the individual room temperature regulation system and on the other hand to provide more comfortable room temperature conditions for the personnel that has to work daily with this test system. Since this higher temperature did not affect the survival in controls nor had any effect on reproduction in the breeding containers, we decided to increase the temperature conditions permanently. Temperature remains however within ± 2 °C during individual tests.
Light intensity is app. 800 lux (not measured for these individual tests) instead of 1200 lux. To our experience this difference in light intensity is not critical since the reproduction performance in the breeding compartments, kept at about 800 lux in our facility, is very successful. Therefore no attempts were made to increase light intensity.
The test concentrations could not be measured in all test solutions (below QL).
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Nominal Concentrations:
0-0.2-0.29-0.46-0.68-1.18-2.2 mg CdTe/L
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name:
- Strain/clone:DM 04 02 K36
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
21-21.9
Details on test conditions:
Test vessels: 50 ml glass beakers with translucent lid
Number of organisms per vessel: 5
Volume per daphnia: 4 ml (total volume = 20 ml)
Number of replicates per concentration: 4
Number of replicates for controls: 6
Exposure time: 48 hours
Evaluation: immobility after 24 and 48 hours
Dark/light: 16/8
Light intensity: not critical
Other information: static set up, no food supplied during the test
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 2.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
The dissolved Cd concentration was in the 2.2 mg CdTe/L treatment 54 µg Cd/L at the begin of the test and 42 µg Cd/L and the end of the test

Physico-chemical data during test:

 Test condition (DA equivalent mg/L) Conductivity (µS/cm)  pH start  pH end  Oxygen start  Oxygen end 
 0  702  7.94  7.88 89  94 
2.2  648  7.97  8.03  91  96 
1.18  647  7.95  8.02  90  95 
0.68  647  7.94  8.01  88  96 
0.46  653  7.94  7.97  88  94 
0.29  645  7.94  8.00  90  95 
0.2  643  7.96  7.97  92  94 
           

 recipient Number concentration (mg/L)  number of organisms at start  mobility (number of organisms) 24h   mobility (number of organisms) 48h pH end  O2 % end  conductivity (µS/cm) 
 1 7.88  94  702 
 2      
3  0  5  5  5      
     
 5  5  5      
     
 7 0.20   5  5  7.98  94 643 
 8 0.20       
9 0.20   5      
10 0.20       
 11 0.29   8 95  645 
 12  0.29  5  5      
 13  0.29  5  5  3      
 14 0.29       
 15  0.46  5  5  7.97 94  653 
 16 0.46       
 17  0.46      
 18  0.46      
 19 0.68   8.01  96  647
 20  0.68  5  4      
 21  0.68      
 22  0.68      
 23 1.18   8.02  95  647
 24 1.18       
 25 1.18       
 26  1.18      
 27 2.20  8.03  96  648
 28  2.20      
 29  2.2  5      
 30 2.20      
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Test done according standard protocol. Very good quality study and is considered useful for classification.
Executive summary:

Test done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for classification. The LC50 was determined at 0.4 mg CdTe/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Temperature during the test is 22 ± 0.5 °C instead of the OECD recommended value of 20 ± 2 °C.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Temperature during the test is 22 ± 0.5 °C instead of the OECD recommended value of 20 ± 2 °C. This deviation is due on the one hand to the limited possibilities of the individual room temperature regulation system and on the other hand to provide more comfortable room temperature conditions for the personnel that has to work daily with this test system. Since this higher temperature did not affect the survival in controls nor had any effect on reproduction in the breeding containers, we decided to increase the temperature conditions permanently. Temperature remains however within ± 2 °C during individual tests (see 6.2.5).
Light intensity is app. 800 lux (not measured for these individual tests) instead of 1200 lux. To our experience this difference in light intensity is not critical since the reproduction performance in the breeding compartments, kept at about 800 lux in our facility, is very successful. Therefore no attempts were made to increase light intensity.
The test concentrations could not be measured in all test solutions (below QL).
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Nominal Concentrations:
0-0.29-0.46-0.68-1.18-2.2 mg CdTe/L
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name:
- Strain/clone:DM 04 02 K36
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
20.3-20.7
Details on test conditions:
Test vessels: 50 ml glass beakers with translucent lid
Number of organisms per vessel: 5
Volume per daphnia: 4 ml (total volume = 20 ml)
Number of replicates per concentration: 4
Number of replicates for controls: 6
Exposure time: 48 hours
Evaluation: immobility after 24 and 48 hours
Dark/light: 16/8
Light intensity: not critical
Other information: static set up, no food supplied during the test
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 2.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 2.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
mortality

Physico-chemical data during test:

 Test condition (DA) equivalent mg/L  Conductivity (µS/cm) pH start  pH end Oxygen start   Oxygen end
 0 677  8.09  7.95  98  97 
 2.2 647  8.04  7.99  97  99 
 1.18 647  8.03  8.00  96  100 
 0.68 648  8.02  7.99  98  99 
 0.46 649  8.04  7.99  98  99 
 0.29 652  8.05  7.99  97  98 

 recipient Number concentration (mg/L)  number of organisms at start  mobility (number of organisms) 24h   mobility (number of organisms) 48h pH end  O2 % end  conductivity (µS/cm) 
 1 8.10  98 677
 2      
3  0  5  5  5      
     
 5  5  5      
     
 7 0.29  5  5  8.05 97 652
 8 0.29 5      
9 0.29 5      
10 0.29 5      
11 0.46 5 8.04  98 649
12  0.46  5  5 5      
 13  0.46  5  5 4      
 14 0.46 5      
 15  0.68  5  5 5  8.03 98  648 
 16 0.68 4      
 17  0.68 4      
 18  0.68 4      
 19 1.18 5  8.04  96  647
 20 1.18  5 5 5      
 21 1.18 5 4      
 22 1.18 5 4      
 23 2.20 3  8.05  97  647
 24 2.20      
 25 2.20 4      
 26 2.20      

The Cd measured in the highest test concentration (2.20 mg CdTe/L DA) was 72 µg dissolved Cd/L

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
very good quality study considered useful for classification
Executive summary:

Tests done according to standard protocol. Good quality and considered useful for classification. The LC50 was > 2.2 mg CdTe/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Temperature during the test is 22 ± 0.5 °C instead of the OECD recommended value of 20 ± 2 °C.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Temperature during the test is 22 ± 0.5 °C instead of the OECD recommended value of 20 ± 2 °C. This deviation is due on the one hand to the limited possibilities of the individual room temperature regulation system and on the other hand to provide more comfortable room temperature conditions for the personnel that has to work daily with this test system. Since this higher temperature did not affect the survival in controls nor had any effect on reproduction in the breeding containers, we decided to increase the temperature conditions permanently. Temperature remains however within ± 2 °C during individual tests.
Light intensity is app. 800 lux (not measured for these individual tests) instead of 1200 lux. To our experience this difference in light intensity is not critical since the reproduction performance in the breeding compartments, kept at about 800 lux in our facility, is very successful. Therefore no attempts were made to increase light intensity.
The test concentrations could not be measured in all test solutions (below QL).
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Nominal Concentrations:
0-0.29-0.46-0.68-1.18-2.2 mg CdTe/L
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name:
- Strain/clone:DM 04 02 K36
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
21.5-21.9
Details on test conditions:
Test vessels: 50 ml glass beakers with translucent lid
Number of organisms per vessel: 5
Volume per daphnia: 4 ml (total volume = 20 ml)
Number of replicates per concentration: 4
Number of replicates for controls: 6
Exposure time: 48 hours
Evaluation: immobility after 24 and 48 hours
Dark/light: 16/8
Light intensity: not critical
Other information: static set up, no food supplied during the test
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 2.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.11 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
mortality

 recipient Number concentration (mg/L)  number of organisms at start  mobility (number of organisms) 24h   mobility (number of organisms) 48h pH end  O2 % end  conductivity (µS/cm) 
 1 7.97  100 667
 2      
3  0  5  5  5      
     
 5  5  5      
     
 7 0.29  5  5  7.91 98 667
 8 0.29 4      
9 0.29 5      
10 0.29 5      
11 0.46 5 7.88 99 662
12 0.46  5  5 5      
 13 0.46 5  5 4      
 14 0.46 4      
 15 0.68 5  5 5  7.77 98  663 
 16 0.68 2      
 17 0.68 4      
 18 0.68 3      
 19 1.18 4  7.92  97 665
 20 1.18  5 5 4      
 21 1.18 5 5      
 22 1.18 5 5      
 23 2.20 4 0 7.99 96 668
 24 2.20 0      
 25 2.20 4 0      
 26 2.20 0      

The measured dissolved Cd concentration in the 2.20 mg CdTe/L treatment was 97 µg Cd dissolved/L.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Test done according standard protocol. Study considered useful for classification.
Executive summary:

Test done according standard protocol. Study considered useful for classification. The LC50 was 1.11 mg CdTe/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Temperature during the test is 22 ± 0.5 °C instead of the OECD recommended value of 20 ± 2 °C.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Temperature during the test is 22 ± 0.5 °C instead of the OECD recommended value of 20 ± 2 °C. This deviation is due on the one hand to the limited possibilities of the individual room temperature regulation system and on the other hand to provide more comfortable room temperature conditions for the personnel that has to work daily with this test system. Since this higher temperature did not affect the survival in controls nor had any effect on reproduction in the breeding containers, we decided to increase the temperature conditions permanently. Temperature remains however within ± 2 °C during individual tests.
Light intensity is app. 800 lux (not measured for these individual tests) instead of 1200 lux. To our experience this difference in light intensity is not critical since the reproduction performance in the breeding compartments, kept at about 800 lux in our facility, is very successful. Therefore no attempts were made to increase light intensity.
The test concentrations could not be measured in all test solutions (below QL).
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Nominal Concentrations:
0-0.29-0.46-0.68-1.18-2.2 mg CdTe/L
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
The test substance Cadmium Telluride is insoluble in water. Therefore Direct Addition (DA) was used according to OECD guideline 23. Test substance was added directly to EDTA free JP4 medium and stirred for 14 days at room temperature. After that the test substance was allowed to settle. The water fraction was filtered prior to use (0.22μ). The dissolved cadmium concentrations were mostly below QL and therefore DA concentrations are used to report the results.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name:
- Strain/clone:DM 04 02 K36
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
21-21.9
Details on test conditions:
Test vessels: 50 ml glass beakers with translucent lid
Number of organisms per vessel: 5
Volume per daphnia: 4 ml (total volume = 20 ml)
Number of replicates per concentration: 4
Number of replicates for controls: 6
Exposure time: 48 hours
Evaluation: immobility after 24 and 48 hours
Dark/light: 16/8
Light intensity: not critical
Other information: static set up, no food supplied during the test
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 2.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
0.57 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
mortality

 recipient Number concentration (mg/L)  number of organisms at start  mobility (number of organisms) 24h   mobility (number of organisms) 48h pH end  O2 % end  conductivity (µS/cm) 
1 8.01  94 620
2      
3 0 5 5 5      
     
5 5 5      
     
7 0.29 5 3 8.02 91 640
8 0.29 4 4      
9 0.29 4      
10 0.29 4 4      
11 0.46 3 3 8.02 94 629
12 0.46  5 5 4      
13 0.46 5 5 4      
14 0.46 4 2      
15 0.68 5 5 1  8.01 93  632 
 16 0.68 1      
 17 0.68 3      
 18 0.68 2      
 19 1.18 1 8.02 94 638
 20 1.18  5 5 2      
 21 1.18 5 3      
 22 1.18 5 1      
 23 2.20 5 0 8.03 94 654
 24 2.20 0      
 25 2.20 5 2      
 26 2.20 0      
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Test done according standard protocol. Study considered useful for classification.
Executive summary:

Test done according standard protocol. Study considered useful for classification.The LC50 was 0.57 mg CdTe/L.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Temperature during the test is 22 ± 0.5 °C instead of the OECD recommended value of 20 ± 2 °C.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Temperature during the test is 22 ± 0.5 °C instead of the OECD recommended value of 20 ± 2 °C. This deviation is due on the one hand to the limited possibilities of the individual room temperature regulation system and on the other hand to provide more comfortable room temperature conditions for the personnel that has to work daily with this test system. Since this higher temperature did not affect the survival in controls nor had any effect on reproduction in the breeding containers, we decided to increase the temperature conditions permanently. Temperature remains however within ± 2 °C during individual tests.
Light intensity is app. 800 lux (not measured for these individual tests) instead of 1200 lux. To our experience this difference in light intensity is not critical since the reproduction performance in the breeding compartments, kept at about 800 lux in our facility, is very successful. Therefore no attempts were made to increase light intensity.
The test concentrations could not be measured in all test solutions (below QL).
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Nominal Concentrations:
0-0.13-0.25-0.80-1.00-1.61-2.43-4.76 mg CdTe/L
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name:
- Strain/clone:DM 04 02 K36
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
22.1-22.3
Details on test conditions:
Test vessels: 50 ml glass beakers with translucent lid
Number of organisms per vessel: 5
Volume per daphnia: 4 ml (total volume = 20 ml)
Number of replicates per concentration: 4
Number of replicates for controls: 6
Exposure time: 48 hours
Evaluation: immobility after 24 and 48 hours
Dark/light: 16/8
Light intensity: not critical
Other information: static set up, no food supplied during the test
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
3.53 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CdTe
Basis for effect:
mortality

 recipient Number concentration (mg/L)  number of organisms at start  mobility (number of organisms) 24h   mobility (number of organisms) 48h pH end  O2 % end  conductivity (µS/cm) 
 1 7.91  95 636
 2      
3  0  5  5  5      
     
 5  5  5      
     
7 0.13  5  5  7.97 94 623
8 0.13 5      
9 0.13 5      
10 0.13 5      
11 0.25 5 7.90 92 597
12 0.25  5  5 5      
13 0.25 5  5 4      
14 0.25 4      
15 0.50 5  5 4  7.86 94  609 
 16 0.50 4      
 17 0.50 5      
 18 0.50 5      
 19 0.80 5  7.88  93 587
 20 0.80 5 5 5      
 21 0.80 5 5      
 22 0.80 5 5      
 23 1.00 5 2 7.88 93 587
 24 1.00 2      
 25 1.00 4 4      
 26 1.00 4      
 27 1.61  7.88  93  587 
28  1.61  5      
29  1.61 4      
 30 1.61       
31  2.43 5 7.88  93  587 
32  2.43       
33 2.43       
 34 2.43       
35 4.76 5 3 0  7.89  95 616 
36 4.76 5 2 0      
37 4.76       
38 4.76      

The dissolved Cd concentration was above QL only in the highest DA concentration of 4.76 mg/L (Cd = 590 µg/L)

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Test done according standard protocol. Study considered useful for classification.
Executive summary:

Test done according standard protocol. Study considered useful for classification. The LC50 was 3.53 mg CdTe/L.

Description of key information

Results of 5 tests with Daphnia magna were seen as valid. The geomean LC50 of those 5 studies was 1.14 mg CdTe/L.

This value will be used for classification.
As Cd2+ ion determines ecotoxicity, the PNEC deriviation will be based on the Cd 2+ ion as determined in the RA (ECB 2007).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
1.14 mg/L

Additional information

In total 6 experiments were done using Daphnia magna as a test species and CdTe as toxicant.

 Test LC50 (mg CdTe/L)   reference
 DAC 12 003 0.4  Vito (2012a) 
 DAC 12 003 herhaling >2.2  Vito (2012b) 
 DAC 12 003 herhaling 2 1.11  Vito (2012a) 
 DAC 12 003 herhaling 3 0.57  Vito (2012a) 
DAC 12 003 herhaling 4  1.01  Vito (2012a) 
 DAC 12 003 herhaling 5 3.53  Vito (2012a) 

The result of DAC 12 003 herhaling 4 was not used in the final deriviation of the geomean LC50. This study was performed in an algal medium and was not considered valid.

The geomean of the other 5 studies was 1.14 mg CdTe/L.

As Cd2+ ion determines ecotoxicity, the PNEC deriviation will be based on the Cd 2+ ion as determined in the RA (ECB 2007).