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Toxicological information

Eye irritation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
eye irritation: in vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The study was conducted according to internationally accepted technical guidelines and in compliance with GLP in a recognized contract research organization. The study is scientifically valid and the report is fully adequate for assessment, despite some apparent typing errors regarding the grading of ocular findings.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2006

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 405 (Acute Eye Irritation / Corrosion)
Version / remarks:
of 2002
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method B.5 (Acute Toxicity: Eye Irritation / Corrosion)
Version / remarks:
of 2004
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent

Test animals / tissue source

Species:
rabbit
Strain:
New Zealand White
Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS

- Number and Sex: 3 males
- Animal supplier: Charles River Deutschland GmbH, D-97633 Sulzfeld, Germany
- Weight at study start or test start*: Minimum 1.9 kg, maximum 2.4 kg
- Hygiene: Optimal hygienic conditions
- Housing: Individual housing in metal wire cages from Ehret GmbH, D-79312 Emmendingen,
cage type KK 016R, 79 cm x 59 cm bottom area, 38 cm height
- Environmental enrichment: Aspen wood blocks
- Diet (ad libitum): Altromin 2123 maintenance diet for rabbits, rich in crude fiber, Altromin, D-32791 Lage, Germany
In addition, dietary supplement of hay-briquettes from SSNIFF, D-59494 Soest, Germany
- Water(ad libitum): Tap water from an automatic watering system
- Acclimation period: 5 days (animal #1), 12 days (animals #2 & #3).

Analysis of the diet for ingredients and contaminants has been performed randomly by the supplier (Altromin, D-32791 Lage, Germany)

* The study report does not clearly specify whether "study or test start" refers to prior to dosing on the day of instillation.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

Air conditioned animal room set at:
- Temperature (°C): Room temperature, average of 19.2°C (continuous control and recording)
- Relative Humidity (%): Average of 48.4 % (continuous control and recording)
- Photoperiod (artificial lighting): 12 hrs day / 12 hrs night

Test system

Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Controls:
not required
Amount / concentration applied:
0.1 mL of undiluted liquid test material was administered into the conjunctival sac of one eye per rabbit (right eye). The contralateral eye (left eye) remained untreated to serve as a control.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Rinsing of the eyes after treatment has not been mentioned in the report. Therefore it is assumed that, the treatment/exposure period was equivalent to the entire observation period following instillation or lasted until removal of the test material by physiological mechanisms, whichever happened sooner.
Observation period (in vivo):
up to 21 days (ending individually for each animal, when the animal was free of alterations)
Number of animals or in vitro replicates:
3 male rabbits
Details on study design:
EYE EVALUATION:

Within 24 hours before treatment start, both eyes of each animal were investigated to ensure that there was no pre-existing corneal damage, iridial inflammation or conjunctival irritation.

One animal was initially treated and, in the absence of a severe effect (no corrosive effect) until 72 hours post instillation, the remaining two animals were committed to the study.

Eyes were evaluated in all animals at approximately 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours after test substance instillation adopting the numerical scoring system listed in Table 1 in the field below. Additional examinations were performed 7, 14 and/or 21 days after the instillation (ending individually for each animal, by the observation time point the animal was entirely free from alterations). Grades attained at 24, 48 and 72 hours after instillation were included in the mean gradings of ocular lesions and used for evaluation of the necessity of eye irritation/corrosion classification. As from 24 h after test substance instillation, staining with fluorescein (Minims Fluorescein Sodium 2 %) supported the recognition of corneal lesions in all animals.

Equipment used for eye evaluation: Otoscope lamp

Results and discussion

In vivo

Resultsopen allclose all
Irritation parameter:
cornea opacity score
Basis:
mean
Remarks:
over 3 animals and 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
not reversible
Remarks:
, as in one animal (# 2) corneal opacity grade 2 followed at 7, 14 & 21 days after instillation
Irritation parameter:
cornea opacity score
Basis:
animal #1
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 7 days
Irritation parameter:
cornea opacity score
Basis:
animal #2
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
not reversible
Remarks:
, as corneal opacity grade 2 followed at 7, 14 & 21 days after instillation
Irritation parameter:
cornea opacity score
Basis:
animal #3
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 7 days
Irritation parameter:
iris score
Basis:
mean
Remarks:
over 3 animals and 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0.1
Max. score:
2
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 48 hours
Irritation parameter:
iris score
Basis:
animal #1
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
2
Reversibility:
other: Iridic changes were not evident
Irritation parameter:
iris score
Basis:
animal #2
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0
Max. score:
2
Reversibility:
other: Iridic changes were not evident
Irritation parameter:
iris score
Basis:
animal #3
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
0.3
Max. score:
2
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 48 hours
Irritation parameter:
conjunctivae score
Remarks:
redness
Basis:
mean
Remarks:
over 3 animals and 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1.3
Max. score:
3
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 21 days
Irritation parameter:
conjunctivae score
Remarks:
redness
Basis:
animal #1
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1
Max. score:
3
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 7 days
Irritation parameter:
conjunctivae score
Remarks:
redness
Basis:
animal #2
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
2
Max. score:
3
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 21 days
Irritation parameter:
conjunctivae score
Remarks:
redness
Basis:
animal #3
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1
Max. score:
3
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 14 days
Irritation parameter:
chemosis score
Basis:
mean
Remarks:
over 3 animals and 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
3.6
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
not fully reversible within: 21 days in one (#2) of three animals
Irritation parameter:
chemosis score
Basis:
animal #1
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
3.3
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 7 days
Irritation parameter:
chemosis score
Basis:
animal #2
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
3.7
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
not fully reversible within: 21 days, but clear trend to reversibility as on Days 14 & 21 only grade 1
Irritation parameter:
chemosis score
Basis:
animal #3
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
3.7
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 7 days
Irritation parameter:
other: Discharge
Basis:
mean
Remarks:
over 3 animals and 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1.2
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 21 days
Irritation parameter:
other: Discharge
Basis:
animal #1
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1.7
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 7 days
Irritation parameter:
other: Discharge
Basis:
animal #2
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 21 days
Irritation parameter:
other: Discharge
Basis:
animal #3
Remarks:
mean over 3 time points
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Score:
1
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
fully reversible within: 7 days
Irritant / corrosive response data:
Iridic lesions were not evident throughout the study, except for one incidence of a grade 1 lesion in male #3 at 24 hours after test material instillation (Day 1). Corneal lesions (opacity grade 1) were seen in all animals at 24, 48 and 72 hours after instillation and by Day 7 had entirely disappeared in two animals (#1 and #3), whereas irreversibly had increased in severity to grade 2 in the other animal (#2). Staining with fluorescein solution revealed damage of the anterior corneal epithelium. Although, severity grade-2 corneal opacity remained in animal #2 until Day 21, the affected corneal area gradually decreased from grade 4 on Day 1 to grade 2 on Days 7, 14 and 21. In addition to the findings specified under "Overall irritation/corrosion results", conjunctival redness grade 1 or 2, chemosis grade 2 or 4 and discharge grade 1, 2 or 3, were also seen at 1 h after instillation and, except for chemosis, were fully reversible in all animals. Chemosis was fully reversible in animals #1 and #3, whereas in animal #2 still evident as grade 1 by Day 21. Control eyes (untreated) were without ocular findings throughout the observation period.
Other effects:
Mortality or signs of systemic toxicity were not evident and bodyweight was unaffected by treatment with the test material.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
other: Category 1 (irreversible effects on the eye) according to Regulation 1272/2008