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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

There is a wide range in acute toxicity results reported. However, the most conservative results for members of the category Rosin, hydrogenated rosin and their salts is an LL50 of >1 <10 mg/L and a nominal LC50 of 1.7 mg/L.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

There are studies available for a number of the members of this category.

Four reliable studies are available for rosin. A GLP-compliant, guideline study with Brachydanio rerio is available (Akzo Nobel, 1999c). The study used WAF techniques, but there was no analytical verification of the test concentrations. It is therefore considered to be reliable with restrictions. The study determined an LL50 of >1 <10 mg/L. A second study (Akzo Nobel, 1998a) was conducted in a similar manner, but with the addition of humic acid in the test media to determine if this has any mediating effect on toxicity. This study determined an LL50 of <10 mg/L. These two studies, taken together, are considered key for this endpoint. A supporting study is also available for rosin (Inveresk, 2001a). This study used Pimephales promelas as the test species and used WAF techniques, with no analytical verification of test concentrations conducted. The study determined an LL50 of >1000 mg/L. Another study (Laboratory for applied biology, 1997b) is available for rosin, which determined an LC50 of 60.3 mg/L. However, ultrasonication was used in order to get the substance into solution. The EC50 is therefore above the solubility for the test item and these results should be used with caution.

Two studies are available for tall oil rosin, which is considered to be equivalent to rosin, one without humic acid in the test media and one with (Akzo Nobel, 1999e,f). Both studies utilized WAF techniques with no analytical verification of test concentrations. The study without humic acid determined an LL50 of >1 <10 mg/L and the study with humic acid also determined an LL50 of <10 mg/L.

One reliable study is available for Resin acids and rosin acids, sodium salts using the test species Danio rerio and this is considered a key study (Aventis, 2004a). The study is GLP-compliant and follows a standard guideline. Some analytical verification of test concentrations was conducted. There were some limitations in the study design and the results should be assessed with caution as particulate matter may have been detected in some of the test concentrations that could affect results. The LC50 determined from this study was 5.4 mg/L.

One study is available for resin acids and rosin acids, hydrogenated, potassium salts (Eastman, 2005a). The study followed a standard guideline but there was no analytical verification of test concentrations. The study determined a nominal LC50 of 1.7 mg/L.

A reliable study is available for Rosin, reaction products, with formaldehyde (Safepharm Laboratories, 1994a). The study followed OECD guideline 203 using Golden Orfe (Leuciscus idus). Rosin, reaction products with formaldehyde is a UVCB with low water solubility and the study was conducted as a limit test using the Water Accommodated Fraction at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L. No mortality was observed throughout the study in the control or 1000 mg/L loading rate WAF. The 96 hour NOELR was determined to be 1000 mg/L and the 96 hour EL50 was > 1000 mg/L.