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Toxicological information

Skin sensitisation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
skin sensitisation: in vivo (LLNA)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2014
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: well documented, according to OECD guideline and GLP

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2014
Report Date:
2014

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 429 (Skin Sensitisation: Local Lymph Node Assay)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Type of study:
mouse local lymphnode assay (LLNA)

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent

In vivo test system

Test animals

Species:
mouse
Strain:
CBA
Sex:
female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Harlan Laboratories B.V. Postbus 6174 5960 AD Horst / The Netherlands
- Age at study initiation: 8-10 weeks
- Housing: in groups
- Diet: ad libitum
- Water: ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 22 +/- 2
- Humidity (%): 23-65
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

Study design: in vivo (LLNA)

Vehicle:
dimethylformamide
Concentration:
5, 10, 25%
No. of animals per dose:
5
Details on study design:
RANGE FINDING TESTS:
-The highest test item concentration, which could be technically used, was 100% of the undiluted test item. Test item solution at different concentrations was prepared using DMF as vehicle.
- Two mice were treated by (epidermal) topical application to the dorsal surface of each ear with test item concentrations of 50 and 100% once daily each on three consecutive days. Both animals treated with 50 and 100% showed an erythema of the ear skin (score 1 and 2) during the observation period. Furthermore, the animal treated with 50% test item concentration showed an increase of the ear weight of 32.4% which exceeded the OECD recommended threshold of 25%. Therefore, a second pre-test was performed using test item concentrations of 10 and 25%. The animal treated with 10% test item concentration showed an erythema of the ear skin (score 1) between day 3 and 5. The animal treated with 25% test item concentration showed an erythema of the ear skin (score 1 or 2) between day 1 and 5. Thus, the test item in the main study was assayed at 5, 10 and 25%. The highest concentration tested was the highest level that could be achieved whilst avoiding systemic toxicity and excessive local skin irritation as confirmed in the pre-experiment.


MAIN STUDY
- Criteria used to consider a positive response: A test item is regarded as a sensitiser in the LLNA if the following criteria are fulfilled:
• First, that exposure to at least one concentration of the test item resulted in an incorporation of 3HTdR at least 3-fold or greater than that recorded in control mice, as indicated by the Stimulation Index.
• Second, that the data are compatible with a conventional dose response, although allowance must be made (especially at high topical concentrations) for either local toxicity or immunological suppression.

TREATMENT PREPARATION AND ADMINISTRATION:
- Topical application
Each test group of mice was treated by (epidermal) topical application to the dorsal surface of each ear with test item concentrations of 5, 10 and 25% in DMF. The application volume, 25 μL/ear/day, was spread over the entire dorsal surface (∅ ∼ 8 mm) of each ear once daily for three consecutive days. A further group of mice (control animals) was treated with an equivalent volume of the relevant vehicle alone (control animals).

- Administration of 3H-methyl-thymidine
Five days after the first topical application (day 6) 250 μL of phosphate-buffered saline containing 19.8 μCi of 3H-methyl thymidine (equivalent to 79.2 μCi/mL 3HTdR) were injected into each test and control mouse via the tail vein.

- Determination of incorporated 3HTdR
Approximately five hours after treatment with 3HTdR all mice were euthanised by using CO2, which was, after harvesting of the lymph nodes, followed by cervical dislocation to ensure death.
The draining lymph nodes were rapidly excised and pooled per animal (2 nodes per animal). Single cell suspensions (in phosphate buffered saline) of pooled lymph node cells were prepared by gentle mechanical disaggregation through stainless steel gauze (200 μm mesh size). After washing two times with phosphate buffered saline (approx. 10 mL) the lymph node cells were resuspended in 5 % trichloroacetic acid (approx. 3 mL) and incubated at approximately +4 °C for at least 18 hours for precipitation of macromolecules. The precipitates were then resuspended in 5 % trichloroacetic acid (1 mL) and transferred to scintillation vials with 10 mL of scintillation liquid and thoroughly mixed. The level of 3HTdR incorporation was then measured in a β-scintillation counter. Similarly, background 3HTdR levels were also measured in two 1 mL-aliquots of 5 % trichloroacetic acid. The β-scintillation counter expresses 3HTdR incorporation as the number of radioactive disintegrations per minute.

- Determination of Lymph Node Weight and Cell Count
After excision, the lymph nodes were pooled per animal and weighed immediately using an analytical balance.
Furthermore, the lymph node cell count was determined for each animal. For this, the volume of the cell suspensions was adjusted to an equal final volume and vortexed. Subsequently, individual cell counts were determined using a cell counter (CAS®1, Schärfe System). The values obtained were taken down manually.

-Determination of Ear Weights
After the lymph nodes had been excised, both ears (left and right) of mice were punched at the apical area using a biopsy punch (Ø 8 mm corresponding to 0.5 cm2). For each animal both punches were immediately weighed (pooled per animal) using an analytical balance.

- Observations
In addition to the sensitising reactions the following observations and data were recorded during the test and observation period:
Mortality / Viability: At least once daily from experimental start to necropsy.
Body weights: In the pre-test: prior to the first application and prior to sacrifice. In the main experiment: prior to the first application and prior to treatment with 3HTdR.
Ear thickness: In the pre-test prior to the first application of the test item (day 1), on day 3 and before sacrifice (day 6).
Ear weights: In the pre-test and main experiment after sacrifice; biopsy punches were taken from each ear.
Lymph node weights: After excision, the lymph nodes were pooled per animal and weighed immediately using an analytical balance.
Lymph node cell count: The lymph node cell count was determined in aliquots taken from the prepared single cell suspensions of the lymph nodes using a cell counter.
Clinical signs (local / systemic): Clinical signs (local irritation at the application site or systemic toxicity) were recorded at least once daily. Especially the treatment sites were observed carefully.
Positive control substance(s):
hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (CAS No 101-86-0)
Statistics:
The mean values and standard deviations were calculated in the body weight tables, for the ear weights, the lymph node weights and lymph node cell count, and for the DPM values (group mean DPM ± standard deviation).
A statistical analysis was conducted on the DPM values, the ear weights, the lymph node weights and the lymph node cell count to assess whether the difference was statistically significant between the test item groups and negative control group. For all statistical calculations SigmaStat for Windows (Version 2.0) was used. A One-Way-Analysis-of-Variance was used as a statistical method. In case of significant results of the One-Way-ANOVA, multiple comparisons were performed with the Dunnett test. Statistical significance was set at the five per cent level (p < 0.05).
The Dean-Dixon-Test was used for detection of possible outliers (performed with Microsoft Excel 2007). However, both biological and statistical significance were considered together.

Results and discussion

In vivo (LLNA)

Resultsopen allclose all
Parameter:
SI
Remarks on result:
other: please see table below
Parameter:
other: disintegrations per minute (DPM)
Remarks on result:
other: please see table below

Any other information on results incl. tables

Test item concentration

DPM values measured

DPM-BG per animal
(2 lymph nodes)a)

S.I.b)

%

Group no.

Animal no.

---

---

BG I

21

---

---

---

---

BG II

14

---

---

0

1

1

406

388.5

---

0

2

607

589.5

---

0

3

848

830.5

---

0

4

657

639.5

---

0

5

1147

1129.5

---

5

2

6

1213

1195.5

1.7

5

7

1368

1350.5

1.9

5

8

1499

1481.5

2.1

5

9

1885

1867.5

2.6

5

10

1778

1760.5

2.5

10

3

11

1043

1025.5

1.4

10

12

2675

2657.5

3.7

10

13

2201

2183.5

3.1

10

14

1761

1743.5

2.4

10

15

2099

2081.5

2.9

25

4

16

2513

2495.5

3.5

25

17

2803

2785.5

3.9

25

18

2998

2980.5

4.2

25

19

2174

2156.5

3.0

25

20

3505

3487.5

4.9

1    =  Control Group

2-4=  Test Group

a)   =  values corrected for mean background value (BGI and BGII)

b)    =  Stimulation Indices relative to the mean of the control group (Group 1)

Test item concentration

Group Calculation

Mean DPM per
animal (2 lymph nodes)a)

SD

S.I.

Vehicle Control Group (DMF)

715.5

279.8

1.00

5% test item

1531.1

280.0

2.14$

10% test item

1938.3

606.0

2.71$

25% test item

2781.1

502.6

3.89$

a)      Mean DPM/animal was determined by dividing the sum of the measured values from lymph nodes of all animals within a group by the number of animals in that group (5 animals)

$    The p value for the analysis was p<0.05)

 

Test item concentration %

S.I.

Test Group 3

10 (a)

2.71 (b)

Test Group 4

25 (c)

3.89 (d)

EC3 = (a-c) [(3-d)/(b-d)] + c = 13.7% (w/w)

a,b,c,d = Co-ordinates of the two pairs of data lying immediately above and below the S.I. value of 3 on the LLNA dose response plot.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
sensitising
Remarks:
Migrated information Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU