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Administrative data

bioaccumulation: terrestrial
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
other information
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Peer reviewed data

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
secondary source
3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA)
EU-Risk Assessment Report
Bibliographic source:
EUR 22235 EN; ISSN 1018-5593
Reference Type:
Bioakkumulation und Verteilung von Umweltchemikalien in aquatischen Laborsystemen zur realitätsnahen Prognose der Umweltgefährlichkeit
Nagel R
Bibliographic source:
UBA-Forschungsvorhaben 106 03 106/02.

Materials and methods

GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material


Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
other: differend species (aquatic and sediment)

Results and discussion

Bioconcentration factor
not specified
Remarks on result:
other: Lumbricus variegatus

Any other information on results incl. tables

In single species tests with different invertebrates and submerse macrophytes bioconcentration

factors on the basis of 14C-activity amounted to 113 (Ceratophyllum demersum), 79 (Elodea

canadensis), 29 (Daphnia magna), 28 (Asellus aquaticus), 15 (Planorbarius corneus),

35 (Tubifex tubifex), 30 (Limnodrilus hoffemeisteri), and 800 l/kg (Lumbriculus variegatus). For

the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus the BCF of 800 l/kg was much higher than those found

in other invertebrates. As the BCF values are based on radioactivity measurements, the

distribution of both DCA and transformation products being formed in the test system or in the

organisms is represented (Nagel, 1997).

After differentiation of 14C- activity in water, sediment and organisms of the microcosm the

following BAFs based on the parent substance (3,4-DCA) could be calculated:

210 (C. demersum), 198 (E. canadensis), 276 (D. magna), 76 (A. aquaticus), 533 (P. corneus),

271 (T. tubifex) and 572 l/kg (L. variegatus) (Nagel, 1997).

Hence the calculated bioconcentration factors for 3,4-DCA substance were between 2.6 times

(for C. demersum) and 44.4 times (for P. corneus) higher than the corresponding

bioconcentration factors for 3,4-DCA obtained in the single species tests. The parent compound

related sorption factor for the sediment amounted to 31 (Nagel, 1997).

The partitioning of total radioactivity and parent substance among the organisms and

compartments (water and sediment) was measured. Approximately 71% of the parent substance

was bound to sediment particles. 5.5% of 3,4-DCA could be detected in Ceratophyllum

demersum, this species accounting for only 0.14% of the total mass of the system (approximately

35%). 2.4% of the radioactivity was bound to suspended matter in the water (Nagel, 1997).

Summarising the results, it can be concluded, that for several aquatic invertebrates and

macrophytes correlations were established between log KOW and log BCF for the test substances.

These calculations revealed basically a linear relationship between log KOW and log BCF for

invertebrates and macrophytes. However the goodness of fit and the characteristic parameters of

the regression line depend in this case on the chosen species. Therefore a direct extrapolation of

BCFs from fish to other aquatic invertebrates or macrophytes and the extrapolation of data

derived from single species tests to the complex situation in laboratory microcosm is currently

not possible (Nagel, 1997).

The results indicate a high bioaccumulation for L. variegatus, C. demersum, E. canadensis, T.

tubifex and P. corneus with BAF, and BCF > 100 to 800 l/kg. Therefore a biomagnification via

sediment dwelling organism - fish and/or birds cannot be excluded.

In addition, the results of Nagel (1997) for the epi- and endobenthic organism Asellus aquaticus

and Tubifex tubifex of the microcosm study in comparison to the single species show clearly, that

the bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are significantly higher than the bioconcentration factors

(BCF) determined in the single species test without sediment. This is a very strong indication,

that the 3,4-DCA bound onto sediment is bioavailable.

An additional evidence of bioavailability of bound 3,4-DCA for Tubificides was supplied by the

results of Egeler et al. (1997). It could be shown that 14C-DCA is accumulated in Tubifex tubifex

from loaded sediment. For 3,4-DCA the highest BAF of the three investigated substances

(3,4-DCA, Lindan, HCB) could be obtained, although 3,4-DCA is the substance with the lowest

log Pow-value.

Applicant's summary and conclusion