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Environmental fate & pathways

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Description of key information

Biodegradation in water

Estimation Programs Interface Suite (2018) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test chemical in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that test chemical is expected to be not readilybiodegradable.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (2018) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test chemical. If released in to the environment, 35% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of test chemical in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.0835%), indicates that test chemical is not persistent in sediment.

 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of test chemical in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (2018). If released into the environment, 64.9% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Additional information

Biodegradation in water

Predicted data for the test chemical and various supporting weight of evidence studies for its structurally similar read across substance were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In a prediction using the Estimation Programs Interface Suite (2018), the biodegradation potential of the test chemicalin the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms was estimated. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that test chemical is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study from peer reviewed journal (GREIM H. et. al., 1994) and secondary source (2017) for the test chemical,biodegradation experiment was conducted for 30 days under aerobic conditions for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test chemical. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 D "Ready Biodegradability: Closed Bottle Test". Initial test substance conc. used in the study were 3, 10 and 30 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of test chemical was determined to be 0% by BOD parameter in 30 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Another biodegradation study was conducted for 9 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test chemical (from peer reviewed journal J. Ruff et. al., 1999). Test chemical was purchased from TCI (Tokyo) at the highest purity available. Glassware was cleaned thoroughly and care taken to exclude extraneous sulfur. Pseudomonas putida strain S-313 was used as a test inoculum obtained from activated sludge from sewage treatment plants in Konstanz, Germany (largely communal) and Ludwigshafen, Germany (largely industrial).Initial experiments were done with the phosphate-buffered medium. The sulfur-free acetate-Tris-buffered salts medium gave the same products with negligible background growth, and thus used as a standard medium. Sulfur was provided at 50µM, except for disulfonates, where the initial sulfonate concentration was 30µM.Cultures were grown in screw-capped tubes on a roller at 30°C.Samples were taken at 3-day intervals for 9 days. Bacteria were removed by centrifugation and the protein content measured, and 100µl portions of the supernatant fluid were examined by HPLC. Substrates and products were determined by isocratic reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) or by ion-pair chromatography. The apparatus included a diode array detector. Chromatograms were initially evaluated with wavelength settings of 245 nm for the amino-naphthalenedisulfonates. Protein was assayed by a Lowry-type method. The percentage degradation of test chemical was determined to be 0% by using Pseudomonas putida strain S-313 as an inoculum. Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical can be considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

For the test chemical from authoritative database (J-CHECK, 2017), biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test chemical. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of test chemical was determined to be 1, 5 and 0% by BOD, TOC removal and HPLC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

On the basis of above results for test chemical, it can be concluded that the test chemical can be expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (2018) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test chemical. If released in to the environment, 35% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of test chemical in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.0835%), indicates that test chemical is not persistent in sediment.

 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of test chemical in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (2018). If released into the environment, 64.9% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test chemical can be considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.