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Hydrolysis

On the basis of the experimental studies of the structurally and functionally similar read across chemical and applying the weight of evidence approach, the hydrolysis half-life value of the test chemical can be expected to be > 5 days, at pH range 4, 7 & 9 and a temperature of 50°C or 276 days at pH 7.0, respectively. Thus, based on this half-life value, it can be concluded that the test chemical is not hydrolysable in water.

Biodegradation in water

Estimation Programs Interface Suite (2018) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test chemical in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that test chemical is expected to be not readilybiodegradable.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (2018) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test chemical. If released in to the environment, 35% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of test chemical in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.0835%), indicates that test chemical is not persistent in sediment.

 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of test chemical in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (2018). If released into the environment, 64.9% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

BCFBAF model of Estimation Programs Interface was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical was estimated to be 3.162 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C) which does not exceed the bio concentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the test chemical is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Adsorption / desorption

KOCWIN model of Estimation Programs Interface was used to predict the soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical. The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical was estimated to be 10 L/kg (log Koc=1) by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the test chemical has a negligble sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have rapid migration potential to ground water.

Additional information

Hydrolysis

Data available for the structurally and functionally similar read across chemicals has been reviewed to determine the half-life of the test chemical. The studies are as mentioned below:

 

The half-life of the test chemical was determined at different pH range. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 111 (Hydrolysis as a Function of pH) at a temperature of 50°C (ranges from 49-51°C) and pH of 4, 7 and 9, respectively. Initial test chemical concentration used for the study was 100 mg/l. Experiment was performed in 2 replicates. The test substance has no activity of hydrolysis and thus was reported to be hydrolytically stable at pH 4, 7 and 9, respectively at a temperature of50⁰C for 5 days. The half-life value of test chemical was determined to be > 5 days at pH 4, 7 and 9, respectively & at a temperature of 50⁰C. Thus based on this, test chemical is considered to be not hydrolysable.

 

In an another study, the half-life and hydrolysis rate constant was determined of the test chemical. The hydrolysis rate constant of test chemical was determined to be 2.9 х 109 L/mol-sec with a corresponding half-lives of 276 days at pH 7, respectively. Based on the half-life value, it is concluded that the test chemical is not hydrolysable.

 

For the test chemical, the half-life of the test chemical was determined at different pH range. The preliminary study was performed according to OECD Guideline 111 (Hydrolysis as a Function of pH) at a temperature of 50°C. Initial test chemical conc. Used for the study was 20 mg/l. Analytical method involve the use of HPLC. Although the half-life value of test chemical was not known, but at the preliminary test, the residues of the test chemical were more than 90 % in all the pH. Thus, the test chemical was reported to be stable in water at a temperature of 50⁰C and at pH 4, 7 and 9, respectively. Based on this, it is concluded that the test chemical is not hydrolysable.

 

On the basis of the experimental studies of the structurally and functionally similar read across chemical and applying the weight of evidence approach, the hydrolysis half-life value of the test chemical can be expected to be > 5 days, at pH range 4, 7 & 9 and a temperature of 50°C or 276 days at pH 7.0, respectively. Thus, based on this half-life value, it can be concluded that the test chemical is not hydrolysable in water.

 

Biodegradation in water

Predicted data for the test chemical and various supporting weight of evidence studies for its structurally similar read across substance were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In a prediction using the Estimation Programs Interface Suite (2018), the biodegradation potential of the test chemicalin the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms was estimated. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that test chemical is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study from peer reviewed journal (GREIM H. et. al., 1994) and secondary source (2017) for the test chemical,biodegradation experiment was conducted for 30 days under aerobic conditions for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test chemical. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 D "Ready Biodegradability: Closed Bottle Test". Initial test substance conc. used in the study were 3, 10 and 30 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of test chemical was determined to be 0% by BOD parameter in 30 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Another biodegradation study was conducted for 9 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test chemical (from peer reviewed journal J. Ruff et. al., 1999). Test chemical was purchased from TCI (Tokyo) at the highest purity available. Glassware was cleaned thoroughly and care taken to exclude extraneous sulfur. Pseudomonas putida strain S-313 was used as a test inoculum obtained from activated sludge from sewage treatment plants in Konstanz, Germany (largely communal) and Ludwigshafen, Germany (largely industrial).Initial experiments were done with the phosphate-buffered medium. The sulfur-free acetate-Tris-buffered salts medium gave the same products with negligible background growth, and thus used as a standard medium. Sulfur was provided at 50µM, except for disulfonates, where the initial sulfonate concentration was 30µM.Cultures were grown in screw-capped tubes on a roller at 30°C.Samples were taken at 3-day intervals for 9 days. Bacteria were removed by centrifugation and the protein content measured, and 100µl portions of the supernatant fluid were examined by HPLC. Substrates and products were determined by isocratic reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) or by ion-pair chromatography. The apparatus included a diode array detector. Chromatograms were initially evaluated with wavelength settings of 245 nm for the amino-naphthalenedisulfonates. Protein was assayed by a Lowry-type method. The percentage degradation of test chemical was determined to be 0% by using Pseudomonas putida strain S-313 as an inoculum. Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical can be considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

For the test chemical from authoritative database (J-CHECK, 2017), biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test chemical. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of test chemical was determined to be 1, 5 and 0% by BOD, TOC removal and HPLC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

On the basis of above results for test chemical, it can be concluded that the test chemical can be expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (2018) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test chemical. If released in to the environment, 35% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of test chemical in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.0835%), indicates that test chemical is not persistent in sediment.

 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of test chemical in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (2018). If released into the environment, 64.9% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test chemical can be considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

Various predicted data of the test chemical and supporting weight of evidence study for its structurally similar read across substance were reviewed for the bioaccumulation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In a prediction done using the BCFBAF Program of Estimation Programs Interface was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical was estimated to be 3.162 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C).

 

In an another prediction done by using Bio-concentration Factor module (ACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module, 2017)), Bio-concentration Factor of the test chemical was estimated to be 1 dimensionless at pH range 1-14, respectively.

 

Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) of test chemical was estimated using Chemspider database (modelling database, 2017). The bioconcentration factor of test chemical was estimated to be 1 at pH both 5.5 and 7.4, respectively.

 

Another predicted data was estimated using SciFinder database (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017) for predicting the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical was estimated to be 1 at pH range 1-10 respectively (at 25 deg C).

 

From CompTox Chemistry Dashboard using OPERA (OPEn (quantitative) structure-activity Relationship Application)  V1.02 model in which calculation based on PaDEL descriptors (calculate molecular descriptors and fingerprints of chemical), the bioaccumulation i.e BCF for test chemical was estimated to be 3.98 dimensionless . The predicted BCF result based on the 5 OECD principles. Thus based on the result it is concluded that the test chemical is non-bioaccumulative in nature.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study from authoritative database (2017) for the test chemical,bioaccumulation study was conducted on test organism Cyprinus carpio for 8 weeks for evaluating the bioconcentration factor (BCF value) of test chemical under static conditions. Test chemical nominal conc. used for the study were 5 mg/l and 0.5 mg/l (w/v), respectively. Range finding study involve the TLm (48 hr) 610 mg/l on Rice fish (Oryzias latipes). The bioconcentration factor (BCF value) of test chemical on Cyprinus carpio was determined to be < 0.6 L/Kg at a conc. of 5 mg/l and < 6 L/Kg at a conc. of 0.5 mg/l, respectively.

 

On the basis of above results for test chemical, it can be concluded that the BCF value of test chemical was evaluated to be0.6 to< 6, respectively,which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the test chemical is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Adsorption / desorption

Various predicted data of the test chemical and supporting weight of evidence studies for its structurally similar read across substance were reviewed for the adsorption end point which are summarized as below:

 

In aprediction done using theKOCWIN Programof Estimation Programs Interface was used to predict the soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical. The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical was estimated to be 10 L/kg (log Koc=1) by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the test chemical has a negligble sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have rapid migration potential to ground water.

 

The Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical was estimated using Adsorption Coefficient module program as Koc 10 (logKoc = 1) at pH range 1-14, respectively (ACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module, 2017)). The logKoc value indicates that the test chemical has a negligible sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have rapid migration potential to ground water.

 

In an another prediction done by using ChemSpider Database (2017), the Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical was estimated. The adsorption coefficient (Koc) value of test chemical was estimated to be 1 (Log Koc = 0) at both pH 5.5 and 7.4, respectively. This Koc value indicates that the test chemical has a negligible sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have rapid migration potential to ground water.

 

Additional soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemicalwas estimated using the SciFinder database (2017).The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical was estimated to be 1 (logKoc = 0) at pH range 1-10, respectively (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the test chemical has a negligble sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have rapid migration potential to ground water.

 

From CompTox Chemistry Dashboard using OPERA (OPEn (quantitative) structure-activity Relationship Application)  V1.02 model in which calculation based on PaDEL descriptors (calculate molecular descriptors and fingerprints of chemical), the adsorption coefficient i.e KOC for test chemical was estimated to be 46.8 L/kg (log Koc = 1.67).The predicted KOC result based on the 5 OECD principles. This Koc value indicates that the test chemical has a low sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have moderate migration potential to ground water.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study from study report (2018) for the test chemical, the adsorption coefficient Koc in soil and in sewage sludge of test chemical was determined by the Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method according to OECD Guideline No. 121 for testing of Chemicals. The solutions of the test substance and reference substances were prepared in appropriate solvents. A test item solution was prepared by accurately weighing 4 mg of test item and diluted with ACN up to 10 ml. Thus, the test solution concentration was 400 mg/l. The pH of test substance was 4.8. Each of the reference substance and test substance were analysed by HPLC at 210 nm. After equilibration of the HPLC system, Urea was injected first, the reference substances were injected in duplicate, followed by the test chemical solution in duplicate. Reference substances were injected again after test sample, no change in retention time of reference substances was observed. Retention time tR were measured, averaged and the decimal logarithms of the capacity factors k were calculated. The graph was plotted between log Koc versus log k(Annex - 2).The linear regression parameter of the relationship log Koc vs log k were also calculated from the data obtained with calibration samples and therewith, log Koc of the test substance was determined from its measured capacity factor. The reference substances were chosen according to estimated Koc range of the test substance and generalized calibration graph was prepared. The reference substances were Acetanilide, 4-chloroaniline, 4-methylaniline(p-Tolouidine), N-methylaniline, p-toluamide, Aniline, 2,5-Dichloroaniline, 4-nitrophenol, 2 - nitrophenol, 2-nitrobenzamide, 3-nitrobenzamide, Nitrobenzene, 4-

Nitrobenzamide, 1-naphthylamine, 1-naphtol, Direct Red 81, Benzoic acid methylester, Carbendazim, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Naphthalene, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenol, Phenol, N,Ndimethylbenzamide, 3,5-dinitrobenzamide, N-methylbenzamide, Benzamide, phenanthrene, DDT having Koc value ranging from 1.25 to 5.63. The Log Koc value of test chemical was determined to be 1.850± 0.006 at 25°C. This log Koc value indicates that the test chemical has a low sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have moderate migration potential to ground water.

 

For the test chemical, the adsorption coefficient Koc in soil and in sewage sludge of test chemical was determined by the Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method according to OECD Guideline No. 121 for testing of Chemicals (Experimental study report, 2018). The solutions of the test substance and reference substances were prepared in appropriate solvents. A test item solution was prepared by accurately weighing 4 mg of test item and diluted with Acetonitrile up to 10 ml. Thus, the test solution concentration was 400 mg/l. The pH of test substance was 5.4. Each of the reference substance and test substance were analysed by HPLC at 210 nm. After equilibration of the HPLC system, Urea was injected first, the reference substances were injected in duplicate, followed by the test chemical solution in duplicate. Reference substances were injected again after test sample, no change in retention time of reference substances was observed. Retention time tR were measured, averaged and the decimal logarithms of the capacity factors k were calculated. The graph was plotted between log Koc versus log k(Annex - 2).The linear regression parameter of the relationship log Koc vs log k were also calculated from the data obtained with calibration samples and therewith, log Koc of the test substance was determined from its measured capacity factor. The reference substances were chosen according to estimated Koc range of the test substance and generalized calibration graph was prepared. The reference substances were Acetanilide, 4-chloroaniline, 4-methylaniline(p-Tolouidine), N-methylaniline, ptoluamide, Aniline, 2,5-Dichloroaniline, 4-nitrophenol, 2 - nitrophenol, 2-nitrobenzamide, 3-nitrobenzamide, Nitrobenzene, 4 -Nitrobenzamide, 1 -naphthylamine, 1 -naphtol, Direct Red 81, Benzoic acid methylester, Carbendazim, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Naphthalene, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, Pentachlorophenol, Phenol, N,N-dimethylbenzamide, 3,5-dinitrobenzamide, N-methylbenzamide, Benzamide, phenanthrene, DDT having Koc value ranging from 1.25 to 5.63. The Log Koc value of test chemical was determined to be 1.430 ± 0.002 at 25°C. This log Koc value indicates that the test chemical has a negligible sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have rapid migration potential to ground water.

 

On the basis of above overall results for test chemical, it can be concluded that the log Koc value of test chemical was evaluated to be ranges from 0 to 1.85, respectively, indicating that the test chemicalhas a negligible to low sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have rapid to moderate migration potential to ground water.