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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Three Klimisch 2 studies were included in a weight of evidence approach to cover this endpoint. Lürling and Tolman (2010) reported a NOEC of 0.1 mg La/L, based on reproduction endpoints (study using La(NO3)3). Bogers (1995) and Barry and Meehan (2000) used LaCl3 for supplying lanthanum to the test media and reported a 21-d NOEC of 0.1 mg La/L for mortality of Daphnia magna and a NOEC of 0.03 mg La/L for mortality and age at maturity of Daphnia carinata. The latter value was selected as key value and corresponds to a NOEC of 0.068 mg/L, when expressed as lanthanum acetate; meaning that lanthanum acetate is very toxic to aquatic invertebrates with long lasting effects.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater invertebrates:
0.03 mg/L

Additional information

Three reliable studies (Klimisch 2, reliable with restrictions) were identified and included in a weight of evidence approach to cover this endpoint.

Lürling and Tolman (2010) exposed Daphnia magna to lanthanum, supplied as La(NO3)3, and observed adverse effects on reproduction at concentrations higher than 0.1 mg La/L (NOEC). The observed effect was based on number of offspring in the third brood, whereas no adverse effects were observed when the intrinsic rates of population increase were evaluated (the most typical endpoint in chronic daphnid tests).

In the study of Bogers (1995), Daphnia magna neonates were exposed for 21 days to increasing lanthanum concentrations (supplied as LaCl3). Mortality seemed to be the most sensitive endpoint. The 21-d NOEC and EC50 were reported to be 0.1 and 0.552 mg La/L, respectively.

Finally, in the study of Barry and Meehan (2000), Daphnia carinata neonates were exposed to a series of lanthanum concentrations (supplied as LaCl3) until their third brood was produced. The most sensitive endpoints seemed to be survival and age at maturity. A NOEC and LOEC of 0.03 and 0.039 mg La/L were obtained, respectively, for both endpoints. The NOEC of 0.03 mg La/L was selected as key value and will be taken forward to PNEC derivation and classification. For classification purposes, it is essential to note that this value corresponds to a NOEC of 0.068 mg/L, when expressed as lanthanum triacetate; meaning that lanthanum acetate is very toxic to aquatic invertebrates with long lasting effects.