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Description of key information

Chloroacetamide is rapidly absorbed and distributed after oral and dermal administration, with first elimination half-lives of  5- 6 hrs and second elimination half-lives of 520 hrs and 180 hrs, respectively. Elimination occurs mainly via urine, only minor amounts are excreted via faeces. After oral administration, most radioactivity is distributed into blood, heart, lungs and spleen. After dermal administration, most amounts of radioactivity are distributed into blood, liver and kidneys. However, at 6 hours there was also clear radioactivity in urinary tract, testes, lung and spleen. Data indicate that approximately 96% and 56% of radioactivity from radiolabelled Chloroacteamide can be systemically bioavailable after oral and dermal administration, respectively.
The toxicokinetics of Chloroacetamide was further assessed based on physicochemical and toxicological information. MCAM is a white solid, odourless powder, with low molecular weight (93.51 g/mol), high water solubility (52.5 g/L) and has a Log Pow in the range of -0.63. Based on these physicochemical data, oral absorption is considered to be most relevant, followed by dermal absorption. As vapour pressure is very low and particle size is mainly > 100 µm, inhalation route is considered to be less relevant. As there were no data on metabolism, it was deduced from toxicokinetics data that elimination of Chloroacetamide was rapid based on half-live of 5-6 hours and high urinary concentrations, however a certain fraction is distributed to the organs by which a slower elimination from the body takes place after repeated exposure. From a physicochemical viewpoint, there is no potential for bioaccumulation.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Bioaccumulation potential:
no bioaccumulation potential
Absorption rate - oral (%):
96
Absorption rate - dermal (%):
56

Additional information

Absorption, distribution and elimination of Chloroacetamide were studied in rats after oral, i.v. and dermal administration (Hoechst, 1985). Chloroacetamide is rapidly absorbed after oral and dermal administration. After administration of radiolabelled Chloroacetamide, radioactivity is rapidly distributed. Two half-lives of elimination can be calculated after oral, dermal and i.v. administration. Whereas the first elimination half-lives range between 5- 6 hrs for all application routes investigated, considerably longer second elimination half-lives of 500 hrs, 520 hrs and 180 hrs were calculated for the i.v., oral and dermal route. Elimination occurs mainly via urine, only minor amounts are excreted via faeces. After oral administration, most radioactivity is distributed into blood, heart, lungs and spleen. After dermal administration, most amounts of radioactivity are distributed into blood, liver and kidneys. However, at 6 hours there was also clear radioactivity in urinary tract, testes, lung and spleen. Data indicate that approximately 96% and 56% of radioactivity from radiolabelled Chloroacteamide can be systemically bioavailable after oral and dermal administration, respectively.

The toxicokinetics of Chloroacetamide was further assessed based on physicochemical and toxicological information. MCAM is a white solid, odourless powder, with low molecular weight (93.51 g/mol), high water solubility (52.5 g/L) and has a Log Pow in the range of -0.63. Based on these physicochemical data, oral absorption is considered to be most relevant, followed by dermal absorption. As vapour pressure is very low and particle size is mainly > 100 µm, inhalation route is considered to be less relevant. As there were no data on metabolism, it was deduced from toxicokinetics data that elimination of Chloroacetamide was rapid based on half-live of 5-6 hours and high urinary concentrations, however a certain fraction is distributed to the organs by which a slower elimination from the body may take place after repeated exposure. From a physicochemical viewpoint, there is no potential for bioaccumulation, e.g. based on low LogKow to organs such as lung and adipose tissue, nor bone. A high concentration (21%) in the skin (administration site) was still present 7 days after dermal application.