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Administrative data

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
From 28 Jun to 08 Jul 2010
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study run to a method comparable with current guidelines and to GLP

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2010
Report date:
2010

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
2-amino-5-bromopyridin-3-ol
EC Number:
689-734-6
Cas Number:
39903-01-0
Molecular formula:
C5H5BrN2O
IUPAC Name:
2-amino-5-bromopyridin-3-ol
Details on test material:
- Purity: 96.2% w/w
- Batch No.: CCS-952/STG-02/00109

Method

Target gene:
Histidine gene in S. typhimurium
Tryptophan gene in Escherichia coli
Species / strainopen allclose all
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Species / strain / cell type:
E. coli WP2 uvr A
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 mix
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Dose range finding test: 3, 10, 33, 100, 333, 1000, 3330 and 5000 μg/plate
Mutation assay:
First assay: 100, 333, 1000, 3330 and 5000 μg/plate
Repeated assay: 100, 333, 1000, 3330 and 5000 μg/plate
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: dimethyl sulfoxide
- Justification for choice of solvent/vehicle: The test substance was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide.
Controlsopen allclose all
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
sodium azide
Remarks:
In the absence of S9 mix for strain TA1535.
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
9-aminoacridine
Remarks:
In the absence of S9 mix for strain TA1537.
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
2-nitrofluorene
Remarks:
In the absence of S9 mix for strain TA98.
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
methylmethanesulfonate
Remarks:
In the absence of S9 mix for strain TA100.
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide
Remarks:
In the absence of S9 mix for strain WP2uvrA.
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 2-aminoanthracene
Remarks:
In the presence of S9 mix for strain TA1535, TA1537, TA98, TA100 and WP2uvrA.
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
Dose range finding test
Selection of an adequate range of doses was based on a dose range finding test with the strains TA100 and WP2uvrA, both with and without 5% (v/v) S9-mix. Eight concentrations, 3, 10, 33, 100, 333, 1000, 3330 and 5000 μg/plate were tested in triplicate. This dose range finding test was reportedas a part of the first experiment of the mutation assay. The highest concentration of the test substance used in the subsequent mutation assay was 5000 μg/plate.

Mutation assay
At least five different doses (increasing with approximately half-log steps) of the test substance were tested in triplicate in each strain. In the first experiment the test substance was tested both in the absence and presence of 5% (v/v) S9-mix in tester strains TA1535, TA1537, and TA98. In an independent repeat of the assay with additional parameters, the test substance was tested both in the absence and presence of 10% (v/v) S9-mix in all tester strains.
The negative control (vehicle) and relevant positive controls were concurrently tested in each strain in the presence and absence of S9-mix.
Top agar in top agar tubes was melted by heating to 45°C. The following solutions were successively added to 3 ml molten top agar: 0.1 ml of a fresh bacterial culture (109 cells/ml) of one of the tester strains, 0.1 ml of a dilution of the test substance in dimethyl sulfoxide and either 0.5 ml S9-mix (in case of activation assays) or 0.5 ml 0.1 M phosphate buffer (in case of non-activation assays). The ingredients were mixed on a Vortex and the content of the top agar tube was poured onto a selective agar plate. After solidification of the top agar, the plates were inverted and incubated in the dark at 37.0 ± 1.0 °C for 48 ± 4 h. After this period revertant colonies (histidine independent (His+) for Salmonella typhimurium bacteria and tryptophan independent (Trp+) for Escherichia coli) were counted.

Colony counting
The revertant colonies (histidine independent or tryptophan independent) were counted manually if less than 40 colonies per plate were present. If more than 40 colonies were present, these were counted automatically with a Biocount 4000 Pro-S-colony counter. Plates with abundant test article precipitate which interfered with automated colony counting were counted manually and the evidence of test substance precipitate on the plates was recorded. The condition of the bacterial background lawn was evaluated, both macroscopically and microscopically by using a dissecting microscope.
Evaluation criteria:
A test substance is considered negative (not mutagenic) in the test if:
a) The total number of revertants in tester strain TA100 is not greater than two (2) times the concurrent control, and the total number of revertants in tester strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98 or WP2uvrA is not greater than three (3) times the concurrent control.
b) The negative response should be reproducible in at least one independently repeated experiment.

A test substance is considered positive (mutagenic) in the test if:
a) The total number of revertants in tester strain TA100 is greater than two (2) times the concurrent control, or the total number of revertants in tester strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98 or WP2uvrA is greater than three (3) times the concurrent control.
b) In case a repeat experiment is performed when a positive response is observed in one of the tester strains, the positive response should be reproducible in at least one independently repeated experiment.
Statistics:
None stated

Results and discussion

Test results
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and E. coli WP2
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
Precipitate:
Precipitation of the test substance on the plates was not observed at the start or at the end of the incubation period.

Toxicity:
In both mutation assays, there was no reduction of the bacterial background lawn and no biologically relevant decrease in the number of revertants at any of the concentrations tested in all tester strains in the absence and presence of S9-mix.

Mutagenicity:
In both mutation assays, no increase in the number of revertants was observed upon treatment with the test substance under all conditions tested.

The negative and strain-specific positive control values were within the laboratory historical control data ranges indicating that the test conditions were adequate and that the metabolic activation system functioned properly.
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results (migrated information):
negative

It is concluded that the test substance is not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay.

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