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Environmental fate & pathways

Biodegradation in soil

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
biodegradation in soil
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Recently published paper.
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Zum biochemischen Harnstoffabbau in wäßriger Lösung - Übersicht
Author:
Gunkel, K., Kümmel, R. & Tümpling, W.v.
Year:
1990
Bibliographic source:
Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica 18(1): 1-20

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The authors review the results of a number of studies investigating the degradation of urea in soil.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Remarks:
: published literature study
Test type:
field trial

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Urea
EC Number:
200-315-5
EC Name:
Urea
Cas Number:
57-13-6
IUPAC Name:
urea
Details on test material:
No further details
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No further information
Radiolabelling:
no

Study design

Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Soil classification:
not specified
Details on soil characteristics:
No details given.
Details on experimental conditions:
There are no experimental conditions given.

Results and discussion

Identity of transformation productsopen allclose all
No.:
#1
Reference
Reference substance name:
Unnamed
IUPAC name:
ammonia
Inventory number:
InventoryMultipleMappingImpl [inventoryEntryValue=EC 231-635-3]
CAS number:
7664-41-7
No.:
#2
Reference
Reference substance name:
Unnamed
IUPAC name:
Bicarbonate
Identifier:
common name
Identity:
Bicarbonate
Details on transformation products:
In soil and water urea is expected to biodegrade fairly rapidly to ammonia and bicarbonate.
Evaporation of parent compound:
no
Volatile metabolites:
no
Residues:
no
Details on results:
The main mode of degradation is enzymatic mineralization. In soil and water urea is expected to biodegrade fairly rapidly to ammonia and bicarbonate if the temperature is not too low. The main mode of degradation is 1. NH2CONH2 +2H2O (urease-enzyme) --> NH3 +NH4 +HCO3-
2. NH4 +1.5O2 nitrosomonas --> NO2 +H2O +2H+ --> NO2- +0.5 O2 nitrobacter --> NO3-
Results with reference substance:
No further remarks

Any other information on results incl. tables

No further remarks

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The main mode of degradation is enzymatic mineralization. In soil and water urea is expected to biodegrade fairly rapidly to ammonia and bicarbonate if the temperature is not too low.
Executive summary:

The authors review the results of a number of studies investigating the degradation of urea in soil. They conclude that the main mode of urea degradation is enzymatic mineralization. In soil and water, urea is expected to biodegrade fairly rapidly to ammonia and bicarbonate if the temperature is not too low. The main factors affecting the rates of nitrogen metabolization are the initial concentration of the ureolytic bacteria, the physical state of the nitrifying micro-organisms and the concentration of toxic organics.