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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2016-11-16 - 2016-12-14
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP study conducted to the appropriate OECD Test Guideline
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants, Growth Test)
Version / remarks:
acc. to OECD 208 (July 2006)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Species:
Avena sativa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: oats
- Plant family: Poaceae
- Source of seed: KWS Lochow GmbH, Ferdinand-von-Lochow-Straße 5, 29303 Bergen, Germany
- Seed storage: The seeds were stored in the dark at the test facility at room temperature (22 ± 10 °C) and protected from moisture until use.
Species:
Allium cepa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: onion
- Plant family: Amaryllidaceae
- Source of seed: Hild Samen GmbH, Postfach 1161, 71666 Marbach, Germany
- Seed storage: The seeds were stored in the dark at the test facility at room temperature (22 ± 10 °C) and protected from moisture until use.
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: sugar beet
- Plant family: Amaranthaceae
- Source of seed: KWS Saat SE, Grimsehlstraße 31, 37574 Einbeck, Germany
- Seed storage: The seeds were stored in the dark at the test facility at room temperature (22 ± 10 °C) and protected from moisture until use.
Species:
Brassica napus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: rape
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
- Source of seed: KWS Saat SE, Grimsehlstraße 31, 37574 Einbeck, Germany
- Seed storage: The seeds were stored in the dark at the test facility at room temperature (22 ± 10 °C) and protected from moisture until use.
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: lettuce
- Plant family: Asteraceae
- Source of seed: Hild Samen GmbH, Postfach 1161, 71666 Marbach, Germany
- Seed storage: The seeds were stored in the dark at the test facility at room temperature (22 ± 10 °C) and protected from moisture until use.
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: soybean
- Plant family: Fabaceae
- Source of seed: Farmsaaat AG, Rott 3, 48351 Everswinkel, Germany
- Seed storage: The seeds were stored in the dark at the test facility at room temperature (22 ± 10 °C) and protected from moisture until use.
Test type:
seedling emergence and seedling growth test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Remarks:
14 to 21 days after 50 % emergence of the seedlings in the control group; onion prolonged to 28 days
Test temperature:
nominal: 22 ± 10 °C
actual: 14.4 - 24.7 °C
pH:
6.14 ± 0.03
Moisture:
The soil was adjusted to a moisture of 50 % of the maximum water holding capacity (MWHC). MWHC: 35.86 g/100 g soil DW.
The room temperature and relative humidity were recorded continuously throughout the test with a data logger, except from 2016-11-21 to2011-11-28, due to technical reasons. The relative humidity was occasionally slightly < 45%. The plant growth was not influenced by these deviations. These deviations were considered to have no impact on the quality and integrity of the study.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: Climatic hall (Viessmann)
- Test container (type, material, size): Non-porous plastic containers (standard flower pots) with a diameter of ca. 12 cm were used.
- Amount of soil: Overall soil amount: 29.4 kg soil dry weight
Number of batches: 4
Soil amount per batch: 7.35 kg soil dry weight
- Method of seeding: Seeding holes were made with a seedling pistil. One seed was given into each hole and covered with soil.
- No. of seeds per container: 5 seeds per test container (soybean: 3 seeds)
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 8 replicates per test concentration and control tested in a randomised block design

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
A 2:1 mixture of natural soil LUFA 2.2 (batch number: Sp2.23916) and quartz sand (12a) was used.
Grain size: <=2 mm
Carbon content: 0.943 %
pH-value: 6.14 ± 0.03
Origin: Landwirtschaftliche Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalt Speyer (LUFA), Obere Langgasse 40, 67346 Speyer, Germany, Dörentrup Quarz GmbH Co. KG, An der Sandgrube 1, 31089 Duingen, Germany

NUTRIENT MEDIUM (if used)
- Description: HAKAPHOS® SOFT SPEZIAL 16+8+22(+3). For watering a 0.05 ‰ solution was used. Origin: Grünes Landhaus, St. Godehard-Str. 23, 31139 Hildesheim, Germany

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16h
- Light source: special light sources for plants
- Light intensity and quality: nominal: >3500 lx, actual: 4648 ± 502 lx, The used tubes are special light sources for plants. They emit most of their light at the blue and red ends of the spectrum and are perfectly matching to that required for photo-biological processes.
- Day/night temperatures: nominal: 22 ± 10 °C, actual: 14.4 - 24.7 °C
- Relative humidity (%): nominal: 70 ± 25, actual: 32.9 - 92.1
- Watering regime and schedules: During cultivation the test containers were bottom watered and fertilized as necessary.

ACCLIMATION PERIOD: The control and test item treatments were applied once at the beginning of the study.

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
Day 7 14, 21, 28: The replicates were observed for visual phytotoxic effects, number of emerged seedlings and number of dead plants.
Test end (day 21 / 28): Final shoot heights and shoot fresh weight measurements were done.


- Phytotoxicity rating system:
The rating of the treated plants was done in relation to the untreated control plants. Observations included all variations, either inhibitory or stimulatory, between the treated replicates and the untreated controls. Such variations may be phytotoxic symptoms (e.g. chlorosis, necrosis, wilting), effects of growth and development rates.
At the end of the study the shoot heights (in cm) and the shoot fresh weights of the shoots (in g) were measured additionally, directly after cutting the plants at the soil surface. The shoot height was measured per plant. Average mean values per replicate were calculated. The shoot fresh weight was determined for all plants from the same pot and considered as one replicate.


VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: no

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: yes
- Test concentrations: 1000 - 500 - 250 - 125 - 62.5 mg/kg DW
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: The preliminary study was performed under the same environmental conditions and test duration as the definitive study with test concentrations 1000-100-10 mg/kg DW. Inhibition of shoot fresh weight and inhibition of rate of emergence were measured.
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
500 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 500 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: shoot height
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
125 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: shoot fresh weight
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: shoot height
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
500 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: shoot fresh weight
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
250 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot fresh weight
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot fresh weight
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC25
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC25
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
EC25
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
EC25
Effect conc.:
967 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot fresh weight
Remarks:
Confidence range p=95% : 743 - >1000 mg/kg DW
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
EC25
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC25
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC25
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC25
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC25
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC25
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC25
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC25
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC25
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Shoot height and shoot fresh weight
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence

For the plant species oats and soybean test item related visual phytotoxic effects were observed at the test concentration 1000 mg/kg DW. No phytotoxic effects and mortality occurred during the test period for the remaining plant species.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The phytotoxicity of the test item Polyol PX to six terrestrial plant species was determined in a seedling emergence and seedling growth test over a period of 21 days (onion: 28 days). For the plant species oats and soybean test item related visual phytotoxic effects were observed at the test concentration 1000 mg/kg DW. No phytotoxic effects and mortality occurred during the test period for the remaining plant species. The statistically calculated NOEC for growth measured as shoot height was >= 1000 mg/kg DW for oats, sugar beet, lettuce and soybean. The corresponding NOEC for onion and rape was 500 mg/kg DW. The statistically calculated NOEC for growth measured as shoot fresh weight was >= 1000 mg/kg DW for oats and sugar beet. The corresponding NOEC for onion, rape and soybean was 500 mg/kg DW and 125 mg/kg DW for lettuce. The statistically calculated NOEC for emerged seedlings was >= 1000 mg/kg DW for all tested species. Therefore, the NOEC based on the most sensitive parameter (growth in terms of shoot fresh weight) was 125 mg/kg soil dw in the most sensitive species (lettuce).
Executive summary:

The phytotoxicity of the test item Polyol PX to six terrestrial plant species was determined in a seedling emergence and seedling growth test over a period of 21 days (onion: 28 days). Test systems comprised two monocotyledons (oats, Poaceae; onion, Amaryllidaceae), and four dicotyledons (sugar beet, Amaranthaceae; rape, Brassicaceae; lettuce, Asteraceae; soybean, Fabaceae). The test was conducted with the test concentrations of 1000 - 500 - 250 - 125 -62.5 mg/kg dry weight (DW).

Potential toxic effects of the test item were assessed on day 7, 14 and 21, onion additionally on day 28, by visual observations (number of emerged seedlings and phytotoxic effects) and at test end by shoot height and shoot fresh weight determination.

For the plant species oats and soybean test item related visual phytotoxic effects were observed at the test concentration 1000 mg/kg DW. No phytotoxic effects and mortality occurred during the test period for the remaining plant species. The statistically calculated NOEC for growth measured as shoot height was >= 1000 mg/kg DW for oats, sugar beet, lettuce and soybean. The corresponding NOEC for onion and rape was 500 mg/kg DW. The statistically calculated NOEC for growth measured as shoot fresh weight was >= 1000 mg/kg DW for oats and sugar beet. The corresponding NOEC for onion, rape and soybean was 500 mg/kg DW and 125 mg/kg DW for lettuce. The statistically calculated NOEC for emerged seedlings was >= 1000 mg/kg DW for all tested species. Therefore, the NOEC based on the most sensitive parameter (growth in terms of shoot fresh weight) was 125 mg/kg soil dw in the most sensitive species (lettuce).

The results of the control for all plant species met the required validity criteria. Therefore, the test is considered to be valid.

Description of key information

The phytotoxicity of the test item Polyol PX to six terrestrial plant species was determined in a seedling emergence and seedling growth test over a period of 21 days (onion: 28 days). For the plant species oats and soybean test item related visual phytotoxic effects were observed at the test concentration 1000 mg/kg DW. No phytotoxic effects and mortality occurred during the test period for the remaining plant species. The statistically calculated NOEC for growth measured as shoot height was >= 1000 mg/kg DW for oats, sugar beet, lettuce and soybean. The corresponding NOEC for onion and rape was 500 mg/kg DW. The statistically calculated NOEC for growth measured as shoot fresh weight was >= 1000 mg/kg DW for oats and sugar beet. The corresponding NOEC for onion, rape and soybean was 500 mg/kg DW and 125 mg/kg DW for lettuce. The statistically calculated NOEC for emerged seedlings was >= 1000 mg/kg DW for all tested species. Therefore, the NOEC based on the most sensitive parameter (growth in terms of shoot fresh weight) was 125 mg/kg soil dw in the most sensitive species (lettuce).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for terrestrial plants:
125 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information