Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Endpoint:
health surveillance data
Type of information:
other: Human
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Reasonably well documented publication

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Vanadium in the blood and urine of workers in a ferroalloy plant
Author:
Gylseth, B. et al.
Year:
1979
Bibliographic source:
Scand. j. work environ. & health, 5: 188 - 194.

Materials and methods

Study type:
biological exposure monitoring
Endpoint addressed:
repeated dose toxicity: inhalation
Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The study was designed to examine whether variations in vanadium dust exposure produce detectable changes in the vanadium concentrations in blood and urine values during a workday or a workweek and whether a correlation exists between the two parameters. The concentration of vanadium in the blood and urine of both nonexposed and occupationally exposed workers have been determined by neutron activation analysis.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Vanadium dust (mainly V2O5; other oxides may be present (VO2, V2O3); ferrovanadium)
No further information on the test material was stated.

Method

Type of population:
occupational
Ethical approval:
not specified
Details on study design:
EXPOSURE:
The production of pig iron at the plant concerned started in 1927. In 1956 the production of a refined iron product called "vanit" was initiated. Blowing oxygen through liquid iron causes the vanadium contaminants in the iron to form stable oxides which can be removed as slag. The slag from this process contains 12 -13% vanadium.
After the removal of iron by magnetic separation, the vanadium slag is used as a raw material for ferrovanadium production. The slag is melted in a three-phase electrofurnace by the addition of calciumcarbonate and ferrosilicon. After reduction and separation the final products contains 50% vanadium, 7% silicon, 38% iron, and 2 % manganese.
The workers are exposed to slag dust containing mainly V2O5; other oxides may, however, be present (VO2, V2O3). During the reduction process the potmen are exposed to a mixture of metal and oxide fumes of iron and vanadium. The crushing and packing men are exposed to ferrovanadium dust.

STUDY POPULATION:
Seventeen workers participated in the investigation. In order to look for differences between persons with little or no exposure and those with moderate to high exposure, the men were divided into the following two groups:
A. 6 persons working on the pig iron furnace - none to low exposure,
B. 11 persons working in the slag production on the ferrovanadium furnace and in the crushing/packing department - moderate to high exposure.
(One worker (slag separation) was later excluded from the results. This means that only the data from 16 workers were evaluated.
The daily vanadium exposure of the persons in group B was recorded with personal sampling devices on four successive days. Blood and urine samples were collected from both groups before and after the workshift the first day and after the workshift on the fourth day.

DUST SAMPLING:
The dust samples were collected on 37-mm, 0.8-µm Millipore membrane filters with Casella personal air samplers using an adjusted flow of approximately 21 * min^-1. The filter monitors were mounted in the breathing zone of the workers. The filter was changed every day.

DUST ANALYSIS:
The dust was analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with a Perkin-Elmer model 300 AAS equipped with a deuterium background corrector, an HGA-76 graphite furnace, a model AS-1 auto sampling system, and a model 56 recorder.

BLOOD AND URINE ANALYSIS:
The vanadium concentration in the blood and urine samples was determined according to a neutron activation method (Method described in: Allen, R.O. and Steinnes, E. Determination of vanadium in biological materials by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Anal. chem. 50 (1978) 1553 - 1555.).
No further information on the study design was stated.

Results and discussion

Results:
There was a statistically significant difference in the vanadium concentrations in blood and vanadium concentrations in urine (p< 0.001) between the two groups. No statistically significant difference was found between the before and after shift values on the first day or between the before shift values on the first day and after shift values on the fourth day. It was shown that for the moderate to high exposure group there was a slight increase in vanadium excretion during the period of investigation (significant at the p < 0.15 level), while the vanadium concentration in blood values revealed no significant alteration. A fair correlation between the vanadium concentration in urine and in blood was found (r = 0.50).
The vanadium excretion adjusted to the urinary creatinine concentration shows slightly higher correlation with vanadium exposure than does the vanadium concentration in the urine (r 0.46 vs. r 0.36).

No or low exposure, mean values in blood and urine 20.2 nmol/L and 3.6 nmol/mmol creatinine. At exposures of less than 2 mg V/m3 , vanadium in blood was found enhanced by about 1.7-fold, in urine about 4-fold.
Normal values without specific exposure are less than 20 nmol/L blood and less than 3.5 nmol/mmol creatinine in urine.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
No or low exposure, mean values in blood and urine 20.2 nmol/L and 3.6 nmol/mmol creatinine. At exposures of less than 2 mg V/m3 , vanadium in blood was found enhanced by about 1.7-fold, in urine about 4-fold.
Vanadium in urine adjusted for creatinine concentration is the most reliable exposure parameter. Normal values without specific exposure are less than 20 nmol/L blood and less than 3.5 nmol/mmol creatinine in urine.