Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Effects on fertility

Description of key information

There are no reproductive toxicity data available for di-tert nonyl polysulfides. Currently, testing for extended one-generation reproductive toxicity is not triggered because no systemic effects or effects on reproductive organs were reported in the available 28-day repeated dose oral toxicity study in rats for the structural analogue di-tert-dodecyl polysulfides (EC 270-335-7, CAS 68425-15-0). In addition, no systemic maternal effects or developmental effects were reported in a prenatal developmental toxicity study in rats for di-tert-dodecyl polysulfides (EC 270-335-7, CAS 68425-15-0). Reproductive toxicity testing will be reconsidered when results from the ongoing 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity study with the structural analogue, di-tert-dodecyl polysulfides (EC 270-335-7, CAS 68425-15-0), are available.

No effects on reproductive performance and reproductive organs were reported in a reproduction/developmental toxicity screening study for the structural analogue di-tert-butyl polysulfides (EC 273-103-3, CAS 68937-96-2).

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
02 April 2010 - ........................
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 421 (Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Commission Regulation (EC) No. 440/2008, Part B.3, 30 May 2008
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Breeder: Charles River Laboratories France, L'Arbresle, France
- Age at study initiation: males were 10 weeks old and females were 9 weeks old
- Weight at study initiation: males: mean body weight of 391 g (range: 357 g to 416 g); females: mean body weight of 215 g (range: 191 g to 246 g)
- Housing: the animals were housed individually, except during pairing and with the litter after parturition, in Individual Ventilated Cages (IVC)
(polysulfone 900 cm2, Tecniplast) containing sawdust.
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): free access to SSNIFF R/M-H pelleted maintenance diet
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): free access to bottles containing tap water (filtered with a 0.22 µm filter)
- Acclimation period: 6 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 22 +/- 2°C
- Humidity (%): 50 +/- 20%
- Air changes (per hr): about 12 cycles/hour of filtered, non-recycled air
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 h / 12 h (7:00 - 19:00)

IN-LIFE DATES: From: 28 April 2010 To: 20 June 2010
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose)
Remarks:
0.5% aqueous CMC
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
The test item was administered as a suspension in the vehicle. The test item was mixed with the required quantity of vehicle, under magnetic stirring
and until the obtention of satisfactory homogenization

VEHICLE
- Concentration in vehicle: 5, 15 and 30 mg/mL
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): 5 mL/kg/day.
Details on mating procedure:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1/1
- Length of cohabitation: each female was placed with the same male until mating occurred or 14 days had elapsed
- Proof of pregnancy: vaginal plug and sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 post-coitum
- After 14 days of unsuccessful pairing replacement of first male by another male with proven fertility.
- Further matings after two unsuccessful attempts: no
- After successful mating each pregnant female was caged (how): individually
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The GC-FID analytical method for the determination of Di-tert-butyl polysulfides (TPS 44) in dosage form samples was provided by the Sponsor
and this method was validated at CIT prior to dosage form analysis.

The dosage forms were within ± 10% of nominal values except for the 25 mg/kg/day dosage form on day 3 (within +-10% at other samplings).
Duration of treatment / exposure:
The dosage forms were administered daily according to the following schedule:
in the males:
- 2 weeks before pairing,
- during the pairing period (2 weeks),
- until sacrifice (at least 5 weeks in total).

in the females:
- 2 weeks before pairing,
- during the mating period (2 weeks),
- during gestation,
- during lactation until day 4 post-partum inclusive,
- until sacrifice for non-pregnant females.

Day 1 corresponds to the first day of the treatment period.
Actual durations: 40 days (males), 40-53 days (females).
Frequency of treatment:
Once daily.
Details on study schedule:
- Age at mating of the mated animals in the study: 13 weeks
Dose / conc.:
25 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
75 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
150 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale:
The dose-levels were selected following the results of a previous 4-week toxicity study in the rat (CIT/Study No. 36320 TSR). In this study, lower body weight gains were recorded in males and females treated at 300 mg/kg/day and in females treated at 100 mg/kg/day but there were no effects on food consumption. Regenerative anaemia was observed in males and females treated at 300 mg/kg/day and in males treated at 100 mg/kg/day and some blood biochemistry parameters were affected, primarily in males treated at 300 mg/kg/day. Due to the minimal effects observed at 100 mg/kg/day in the 4-week study, the high dose-level for the present study is slightly higher in order to ensure treatment-related effects.
Positive control:
None.
Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice a day.

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: once a day.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: males: first day of treatment (day 1), then once a week until sacrifice. females: first day of treatment (day 1), then once a week until mated and on days 0, 7, 14 and 20 post-coitum and days 1 and 5 post-partum.

FOOD CONSUMPTION:
- Food consumption for each animal determined: male: once a week, over a 7 day period, from the first day of treatment until the start of the
pairing period. female: once a week, over a 7 day period, from the first day of treatment until the start of pairing period, during pregnancy at the intervals days 0-7, 7-14 and 14-20 post-coitum and during lactation for interval days 1-5 post-partum.
During the pairing period, the food consumption was measured for neither males nor females.

WATER CONSUMPTION: No

LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS ON PARENTAL ANIMALS
- Blood collection:
Prior to blood sampling, the animals were deprived of food for an overnight period of at least 14 hours.
2- Hematology
The following parameters were determined from all males on the day of sacrifice: Erythrocytes (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB), Mean cell volume (MCV), Packed cell volume (PCV), Mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), Thrombocytes (PLT), Leucocytes (WBC), Differential white cell count with cell morphology, reticulocyte count and Prothrombin time (PT).
- Blood biochemistry
The following parameters were determined from all males on the day of sacrifice: Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Chloride (Cl-), Calcium (Ca++), Inorganic phosphorus (I.PHOS), Glucose (GLUC), Urea (UREA), Creatinine (CREAT), Total bilirubin (TOT.BIL.), Total proteins (PROT), Albumin (ALB), Albumin/globulin ratio (A/G), Total cholesterol (CHOL), Triglycerides (TRIG), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), Alanine aminotransferase (ALAT)



Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
The estrous cycle stage was determined from a fresh vaginal lavage (stained with methylene blue), each morning during the mating period, until the
females were mated.
The numbers of corpora lutea and implantation sites were also recorded for females sacrificed as scheduled on day 5 post-partum.
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
see post-mortem investigations. No in vivo investigation.
Litter observations:
STANDARDISATION OF LITTERS: No

PARAMETERS EXAMINED
The following parameters were examined in F1 offspring: number and sex of pups, stillbirths, live births, postnatal mortality, presence of gross
anomalies, weight gain, clinical signs, behavioural abnormalities.

GROSS EXAMINATION OF DEAD PUPS:
yes, for external and internal abnormalities
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
SACRIFICE
- Male, female animals: All surviving animals on completion of the treatment period

GROSS NECROPSY
- Gross necropsy consisted of external surfaces, all orifices, the cranial cavity, the external surfaces of the brain and spinal cord, the
thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities with their associated organs and tissues and the neck with its associated organs and tissues

HISTOPATHOLOGY / ORGAN WEIGHTS
The tissues indicated in Table below were prepared for microscopic examination and weighed, respectively.
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
Pups found dead and pups sacrificed on day 5 post-partum were carefully examined externally for gross external abnormalities. No tissues were preserved.
Statistics:
Data are compared by one-way analysis of variances and Dunnett test (mean values being considered as normally distributed, variances being considered as homogenous) or by Fischer exact probability test (proportions).

PathData software (version 6.2d2) was used to perform the statistical analysis of organ weight data (level of significance of 0.05 or 0.01) .
Reproductive indices:
. pre-implantation loss:
Number of corpora lutea - Number of implantation sites
_____________________________________________ x 100
Number of corpora lutea

. post-implantation loss:
Number of implantation sites - Number of live pups
_____________________________________________ x 100
Number of implantations

. mating index:
Number of mated animals
_____________________ x 100
Number of paired animals

. fertility index:
Number of pregnant female partners
_______________________________ x 100
Number of mated pairs


. gestation index:
Number of females with live born pups
________________________________ x 100
Number of pregnant females
Offspring viability indices:
. live birth index:
Number of live born pups
_____________________ x 100
Number of delivered pups

. viability index on day 5 post-partum:
Number of surviving pups on day 5 post-partum
_______________________________________ x 100
Number of live born pups
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
All clinical signs were those that are regularly observed in laboratory rats and no dose-relationship was apparent.
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
not examined
Mortality:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence):
At 75 mg/kg/day, a male rat was sacrificed on day 17 of dosing (after mating) due to aggressive behaviour. This was considered to be unrelated to the test item.
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 150 mg/kg/day, both male and female rats gained less body weight compared to the other groups during the first week of dosing (-29% for males and -32% for females compared to controls, however, not statistically significant). In the second week of dosing, the male rats gained slightly more weight than the control group while female rats continued to gain less weight. These initial lower body weight gains were recouped during the rest of the study and had no impact on the final body weights.
At 25 or 75 mg/kg/day, no effects of treatment were observed.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Male rats treated at 150 mg/kg/day consumed a statistically lower quantity of food during the first week of treatment compared to the control group (28 g/animal/day vs. 32 g/animal/day, p < 0.01), However, during the second treatment week, the mean of the food consumption was similar.
At 25 and 75 mg/kg/day for both sexes and at 150 mg/kg/day for females, no effects on the average food consumption occurred when compared to the control group.
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Lower red blood cell parameters (erythrocyte count, haemoglobin level, and haematocrit) were observed at all dose-levels. Additionally, higher mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin level were observed at 75 and 150 mg/kg/day. These changes were associated with higher reticulocyte count (2.05-fold at 75 mg/kg/day and 2.4-fold at 150 mg/kg/day) and were indicative of regenerative anaemia, which has been evident to be reversible at the dose level of 300 mg/kg/day in a concurrent 28-day oral toxicity study with a 2-week treatment-free period.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 150 mg/kg/day, calcium concentration (+3.7%), protein (+7%) and albumin (+11%) concentrations were statistically increased whereas chloride (-2%) and glucose (-14%) concentrations were statistically decreased. Changes in calcium, protein, albumin, and glucose levels are consistent with the reversible changes observed in the 28-day toxicity study at the dose level of 300 mg/kg/day.
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Behaviour (functional findings):
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Male (75 mg/kg/day) was sacrificed on day 17 of dosing (after mating) because of aggressive behavior. This was considered to be unrelated to the test item.
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Non adverse microscopic changes were observed in the liver and in the spleen for both sexes and in the kidneys in males only following administration of 150 mg/kg/day. Moreover, centrilobular hypertrophy in the liver was observed (males being more affected than females) and was associated with hemopoiesis and brown pigment in Kuppfer cells. Additionally, periportal microvacuolation was found in males.
Increased occurrence of hemopoiesis, pigmented macrophages and congestion were observed in the spleen for both males and females. The hemopoiesis and congestion correlate to the haematological findings (anaemia) as well as to the increased weight of the spleen.
Both males and females had increased incidences of decreased marginal zone. In total was six females examined who had been treated with 75 mg/kg/day depending on that two rats were not pregnant and the other four had an enlarged spleen. It was concluded that all had hemopoiesis.
In the epithelial cells of the kidney, male rats had increased incidence of hyaline droplets in the tubules, increased incidence and severity of tubular basophilia as well as dilatation. The increased incidence of hyaline droplets in the tubules is consistent with the increased kidney weight and the latter is considered to be related to accumulation of the specific male rat protein µα2-globulin.
All these findings are consistent with the microscopic findings of the 28-day toxicity study, which were partial reversibility at the end of the 2-week treatment-free period.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not examined
Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
no effects observed
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not examined
Description (incidence and severity):
only post-mortem examinations
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
parental toxicity
Effect level:
75 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
haematology
organ weights and organ / body weight ratios
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Remarks:
parental toxicity
Effect level:
150 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: regenerative anemia
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Remarks:
reproductive performance (mating and fertility)
Effect level:
>= 150 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: unaffected
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
75 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
System:
haematopoietic
Organ:
blood
Treatment related:
yes
Dose response relationship:
yes
Relevant for humans:
not specified
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality / viability:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Sexual maturation:
not examined
Description (incidence and severity):
sex ratio unaffected
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings:
not examined
BODY WEIGHT (OFFSPRING)
While the mean pup body weights on post-natal day 1 were only minimally lower than those of the controls for both male and female pups from the group treated at 150 mg/kg/day, both sexes had lower mean body weight gains and lower mean body weights on post-natal day 5. Mean body weight gain was 29% lower for the male pups and 21% lower for the female pups and mean body weights on post-natal day 5 were -12% and -11%, respectively.
There were no effects of treatment with the test item on mean pup body weights at 25 or 75 mg/kg/day.
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Remarks:
developmental toxicity
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
75 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
body weight and weight gain
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Remarks:
developmental toxicity
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
150 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: slightly lower body weight gain of the pups
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Reproductive effects observed:
not specified
Conclusions:
In conclusion, the test item, Di-tert-butyl polysulfides (TPS 44), was generally well-tolerated at all dose-levels tested. The dose-related changes induced among hematology parameters were indicative of a slight and regenerative anemia and correlated at pathology with extramedullary hemopoiesis in the spleen. At 150 mg/kg/day, the increased incidence and/or severity of the changes observed at pathology and among hematology parameters, was considered to be adverse. At 25 or 75 mg/kg/day, none of these changes were considered to be adverse, taking into consideration their limited amplitude, the absence of associated degenerative changes and/or the reversibility observed at the dose level of 300 mg/kg/day in a concurrent 28-day oral toxicity study.
Executive summary:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential toxic effects of the test item, Di-tert-butyl polysulfides (TPS 44), following daily oral administration (gavage) to male and female rats from before mating, through mating and, for the females, through gestation until day 4 post-partum. This study provides information on all aspects of reproduction and development. The study was conducted as a reproduction/developmental screening test according to OECD 421 guideline and GLP. Three groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats received the test item, Di-tert-butyl polysulfides (TPS 44, purity 97.29%), daily, by oral (gavage) administration, 2 weeks before mating and through mating and, for the females, through gestation until day 4 post-partum. The dose-levels were 25, 75 or 150 mg/kg/day. Another group of 10 males and 10 females received the vehicle, 0.5% aqueous carboxymethylcellulose in purified water, alone, under the same experimental conditions and acted as a control group. The dosing volume was 5 mL/kg/day. Clinical signs and mortality were checked at least once daily during the treatment period. Body weight and food consumption were recorded weekly until mating and then at designated intervals throughout gestation and lactation. The animals were paired for mating after 2 weeks of treatment and the dams were allowed to litter and rear their progeny until day 5 post-partum. The total litter sizes and numbers of pups of each sex were recorded after birth. Pups were observed daily for clinical signs and pup body weights were recorded on days 1 and 5 post-partum. Blood samples were taken from all males at the end of the treatment period for analysis of hematology and blood biochemistry parameters. The males were sacrificed after completion of the mating period. The body, epididymides, testes, liver, kidneys and spleen were weighed and a complete macroscopic post-mortem examination was performed. A microscopic examination was performed on the epididymides, testes, liver, kidneys and spleen of the control and high-dose groups and on all macroscopic lesions of all males. The dams were sacrificed on day 5 post-partum. The body, liver, kidneys and spleen were weighed and a complete macroscopic examination was performed. A microscopic examination was performed on the ovaries, liver, kidneys and spleen of the control and high-dose groups and on all macroscopic lesions of all females. Pups were sacrificed on post-natal day 5 and were carefully examined for gross external abnormalities. Found dead and prematurely sacrificed pups were also examined for gross external abnormalities.

There were no test item treatment-related unscheduled mortalities and clinical signs. Both males and females treated at 150 mg/kg/day gained less body weight during the first week of treatment, associated with statistically significantly lower mean food consumption of the males, but this was recouped during the rest of the study and had no effect on final mean body weights.

There were no effects at 25 or 75 mg/kg/day. There were no effects on mating, fertility or delivery at any dose-level. There were no increases in pup mortality in the test item-treated groups and there were no relevant clinical signs or gross abnormalities in the pups.

Mean pup body weight gain at 150 mg/kg/day was lower and the mean body weight on post-natal day 5 was also lower for both sexes when compared with the controls. There were no effects at 25 or 75 mg/kg/day. Lower red blood cell parameters (erythrocyte count, hemoglobin level, and hematocrit) were observed at all dose-levels. Higher mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin level were observed at 75 and 150 mg/kg/day. These changes were associated with higher reticulocyte count (2.05-fold at 75 mg/kg/day and 2.4-fold at 150 mg/kg/day) and were indicative of regenerative anemia, which has been shown to be reversible at the dose level of 300 mg/kg/day in a concurrent 28-day oral toxicity study with a 2-week treatment-free period (Petitpretz, 2010). At 150 mg/kg/day, calcium concentration was statistically significantly increased (+3.7%), associated with statistically significantly increased protein (+7%) and albumin (+11%) concentration, and chloride (-2%) and glucose (-14%) concentrations were statistically significantly decreased. Changes in calcium, protein, albumin, and glucose levels are consistent with the reversible changes observed in the 28-day toxicity study at the dose level of 300 mg/kg/day. Mean spleen weights were statistically significantly increased in males and females treated at 75 or 150 mg/kg/day. In addition, mean liver and kidney weights were statistically significantly increased in males treated at 75 or 150 mg/kg/day. At the end of the treatment-free period of the 28-day toxicity study, kidney, liver and spleen weight increases were recorded in males and/or females previously given 300 mg/kg/day but with a lower severity when compared to those recorded at the end of treatment period, thus indicating partial reversibility. Enlarged spleen was observed in males and females treated at 150 mg/kg/day (2/10 and 9/10, respectively) and also in 4/10 females treated at 75 mg/kg/day. Males and females treated at 150 mg/kg/day were examined microscopic non adverse changes were seen in the liver an spleen of males and females and in the kidneys of males. In the liver, centrilobular hypertrophy was observed (males being more affected than females) and was associated with hemopoiesis and brown pigment in Kuppfer cells. Males also had periportal microvacuolation. In the spleen, increased severity of hemopoiesis, pigmented macrophages and congestion were observed in males and females, hemopoiesis and congestion correlating with the hematological findings (anemia) and the increased spleen weight. Males and females both had increased incidences of decreased marginal zone. Six females treated at 75 mg/kg/day were examined (two because they were not pregnant and four because they had enlarged spleen) and all had hemopoiesis. In the kidneys, males had increased incidence of hyaline droplets in epithelial cells of the tubules, consistent with the increased kidney weight, and increased incidence and severity of tubular basophilia and dilatation. These are considered to be related to accumulation of the male rat‑specific protein, α2-µ-globulin. All these findings are consistent with the microscopic findings of the 28-day toxicity study, which were partial reversibility at the end of the 2-week treatment-free period.

In conclusion, di-tert-butyl polysulfides (TPS 44), was generally well-tolerated at all dose-levels tested. The dose-related changes induced among hematology parameters were indicative of a slight and regenerative anemia and correlated at pathology with extramedullary hemopoiesis in the spleen. At 150 mg/kg/day, the increased incidence and/or severity of the changes observed at pathology and among hematology parameters, was considered to be adverse. At 25 or 75 mg/kg/day, none of these changes were considered to be adverse, taking into consideration their limited amplitude, the absence of associated degenerative changes and/or the reversibility observed at the dose level of 300 mg/kg/day in a concurrent 28-day oral toxicity study. 

Therefore, based on the experimental conditions of this study, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for parental toxicity was considered to be 75 mg/kg/day based on the significant regenerative anemia observed at 150 mg/kg/day, the No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) for reproductive performance (mating and fertility) was considered to be 150 mg/kg/day, and the NOEL for toxic effects on progeny was 75 mg/kg/day based on the slightly lower body weight gain of the pups at 150 mg/kg/day.

 

Effect on fertility: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
150 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Effect on fertility: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on fertility: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Additional information

There is a reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test for the structural analogue di-tert-butyl polysulfides (EC 273-103-3, CAS 68937-96-2), which was conducted according to OECD Test Guideline 421 and in compliance with GLP (Allen, 2010). Three groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats received the test item, di-tert-butyl polysulfides daily, by oral (gavage) administration, 2 weeks before mating, throughout mating and, for the females, throughout gestation until day 4 post-partum. The dose-levels were 25, 75 or 150 mg/kg bw/day. No effects on reproductive performance or reproductive organs and development were reported and the he No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) for reproductive performance (mating and fertility) was considered to be 150 mg/kg bw/day. The NOEL for toxic effects on progeny was 75 mg/kg/day based on the slightly lower body weight gain of the pups at 150 mg/kg bw/day. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for parental toxicity was considered to be 75 mg/kg bw/day based on the significant regenerative anemia observed at 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Read across justification

Several criteria justify the use of the read across approach to fill data gaps for di-tert-nonyl polysulfide using di-tert-dodecyl polysulfide as an analogue. Both di-tert-nonyl polysulfides and di-tert-dodecyl polysulfides, are complex mixtures of polysulfides and have similar physiochemical properties. Hence, the toxicological properties of both these substances are also expected to be similar.

Effects on developmental toxicity

Description of key information

In a key read across pre-natal developmental toxicity study (Elf Aquitaine, 1997; Klimisch score = 1), conducted according to OECD Test Guideline 414 and in compliance with GLP, three groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats (25/dose) were orally administered (via gavage) di-tert-dodecyl polysulfide (TPS 32) at doses of 0, 50, 250, or 1000 mg/kg bw/day, each day from day 6 to day 15 post-coitum.

No mortality or signs of adverse clinical toxicity were observed through the study period. No abortions or total resorptions were observed in females in any treatment group while food consumption and body weight gain of pregnant dams was comparable to the control animals. Macroscopic examinations did not reveal any significant difference between animals in the treatment and control groups and post-implantation losses were similar in the 0, 50, and 250 mg/kg bw/day dose groups. Incidence of late resorption was observed in one female in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group but was not considered treatment-related. No treatment-related effects on the number of live fetuses per animal, fetal body weight, or fetal sex ratio were observed and no treatment-related external, soft tissue, or skeletal malformations were noted through the study period in any of the dose groups.

Based on the lack of significant adverse clinical effects observed, the maternal and developmental toxicity NOAELs were determined to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
GLP compliance:
yes
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Gestation day 6 to 15
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Dose / conc.:
50 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
250 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
Sex: female
Duration of test: up to gestation day 20
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
no effects observed
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Other effects:
no effects observed
Number of abortions:
no effects observed
Pre- and post-implantation loss:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
In the 1000 mg/kglday group, a slightly increased post-implantation loss (represented mainly by late resorptions, observed in one female) was observed: it could not be demonstrated that this single event was treatment-related.
Total litter losses by resorption:
no effects observed
Early or late resorptions:
no effects observed
Dead fetuses:
no effects observed
Changes in pregnancy duration:
not specified
Changes in number of pregnant:
not specified
Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects: no effects
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Abnormalities:
no effects observed
Fetal body weight changes:
no effects observed
Reduction in number of live offspring:
no effects observed
Changes in sex ratio:
no effects observed
Changes in litter size and weights:
no effects observed
Changes in postnatal survival:
no effects observed
External malformations:
no effects observed
Skeletal malformations:
no effects observed
Visceral malformations:
no effects observed
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:no effects
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Basis for effect level:
other: No effects observed
Abnormalities:
no effects observed
Developmental effects observed:
no

No clinical signs, no unscheduled deaths, no abortions or total  resorption were observed in any group. The food consumption and body weight gain of the pregnant females from all treated groups were similar to those of controls. No treatment-related macroscopic findings were observed, in any group. The post-implantation loss was similar in the 0,50 and 250 mg/kg-day groups. In the 1000 mg/kglday group, a slightly increased post-implantation loss (represented mainly by late resorptions, observed in one female) was  observed: it could not be demonstrated that this single event was  treatment-related.  No treatment-related effects were observed on the number of live fetuses per animal, the fetal body weight or the sex-ratio. No treatment-related external anomalies or malformations were observed in  any group. No treatment-related soft tissue malformations or anomalies were noted in any group.  No treatment-related skeletal malformations, anomalies or variations were observed in any group.

Conclusions:
TPS 32, administered daily by the oral route at 50, 250 or 1000 mg/kg/day to pregnant Sprague-Dawley female rats during organogenesis did not show any signs of toxicity in the pregnant female and did not produce any embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity or teratogenic effects. At 1000 mg/kg/day, only a slight increase in post-implantation loss was noted, as a contribution of a single female: it could not be demonstrated that this single event was treatment-related. The No Effect Level is defined as 1000 mg/kg/day in terms of maternotoxicity, embryofetotoxicity and teratogenic effects.
Executive summary:

In an OECD TG 414 study, three groups of 25 mated female rats received di-tert-dodecyl polysulfides (TPS 32), by oral gavage at the dose levels of 50, 250 or 1000 mg/kg/day, each day from day 6 to day 15 post-coitum inclusive. Simultaneously, a group of 25 mated females was given the vehicle alone (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose) under the same conditions and acted as a control group. Clinical signs including (including evidence of abortion/resorption) and mortality were checked daily. Food consumption and body weight were recorded at designated intervals during pregnancy. On day 20 post-coitum, females were killed. The gravid uterus was weighed and fetuses were removed by hysterectomy. Females were examined macroscopically. Litter parameters were recorded: number of corpora lutea, implantation sites, resorptions, dead and live fetuses. The live fetuses were weighed, sexed, submitted to an external examination and then to soft tissue or skeletal examinations.

No clinical signs and no unscheduled deaths were observed in any group. No females aborted or presented total resorption in any group. The food consumption and body weight gain of the pregnant females from all treated groups were similar to those of controls. No treatment-related macroscopic findings were observed, in any group.The post-implantation loss was similar in the 0, 50 and 250 mg/kg/day groups. In the 1000 mg/kg/day group, a slightly increased post-implantation loss (represented mainly by late resorptions, observed in one female) was observed: it could not be demonstrated that this single event was treatment-related. No treatment-related effects were observed on the number of live fetuses per animal, the fetal body weight or the sex-ratio. No treatment-related external, soft tissue and skeletal anomalies or malformations were observed in any group.

 

The No Effect Level is defined as 1000 mg/kg/day in terms of maternotoxicity, embryofetotoxicity and teratogenic effects.

Effect on developmental toxicity: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Effect on developmental toxicity: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on developmental toxicity: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Additional information

No key developmental toxicity data were identified for di-tert-nonyl polysulfide. However, key read across data are available from di-tert-dodecyl polysulfide, a structural analogue of di-tert-nonyl polysulfide.

In an OECD TG 414 study, three groups of 25 mated female rats received di-tert-dodecyl polysulfides (TPS 32), by oral gavage at the dose levels of 50, 250 or 1000 mg/kg/day, each day from day 6 to day 15 post-coitum inclusive. Simultaneously, a group of 25 mated females was given the vehicle alone (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose) under the same conditions and acted as a control group. Clinical signs including (including evidence of abortion/resorption) and mortality were checked daily. Food consumption and body weight were recorded at designated intervals during pregnancy. On day 20 post-coitum, females were killed. The gravid uterus was weighed and foetuses were removed by hysterectomy. Females were examined macroscopically. Litter parameters were recorded: number of corpora lutea, implantation sites, resorptions, dead and live foetuses. The live foetuses were weighed, sexed, submitted to an external examination and then to soft tissue or skeletal examinations.

No clinical signs and no unscheduled deaths were observed in any group. No females aborted or presented total resorption in any group. The food consumption and body weight gain of the pregnant females from all treated groups were similar to those of controls. No treatment-related macroscopic findings were observed, in any group. The post-implantation loss was similar in the 0, 50 and 250 mg/kg/day groups. In the 1000 mg/kg/day group, a slightly increased post-implantation loss (represented mainly by late resorptions, observed in one female) was observed: it could not be demonstrated that this single event was treatment-related. No treatment-related effects were observed on the number of live foetuses per animal, the foetal body weight or the sex-ratio. No treatment-related external, soft tissue and skeletal anomalies or malformations were observed in any group.

 

The No Effect Level is defined as 1000 mg/kg/day in terms of maternotoxicity, embryofetotoxicity and teratogenic effects.

Read across justification

Several criteria justify the use of the read across approach to fill data gaps for di-tert-nonyl polysulfide using di-tert-dodecyl polysulfide as an analogue. Both di-tert-nonyl polysulfides and di-tert-dodecyl polysulfides, are complex mixtures of polysulfides and have similar physiochemical properties. Hence, the toxicological properties of both these substances are also expected to be similar.

Justification for classification or non-classification

The data available do not meet the criteria for classification for developmental toxicity under CLP Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008.

Additional information