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Toxicological information

Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
no data
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study, on a related material
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1997

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(only 10 animals per group instead of the 20 indicated in guideline; some omissions in reporting)
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): C7-9-11 alcohol
- Molecular formula (if other than submission substance): not available
- Molecular weight (if other than submission substance): no data
- Smiles notation (if other than submission substance): no data
- InChl (if other than submission substance): no data
- Structural formula attached as image file (if other than submission substance): no, not available
- Substance type: technical product
- Physical state: liquid
- Analytical purity: >=99%
- Impurities (identity and concentrations): no data
- Composition of test material, percentage of components: heptanol-1, nonanol-1 and undecanol-1 made up about 65%, the rest mainly consisted of alcohol-CH3 and -C2H5 branched isomers in the 2-position.
- Isomers composition: 35% mainly consisted of alcohol-CH3 and -C2H5 branched isomers in the 2-position
- Purity test date: no data
- Lot/batch No.: no data
- Stability under test conditions: no data
- Storage condition of test material: no data

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Wistar Chbb/THOM
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Dr K Thomae GmbH, Biberach, Germany
- Age at study initiation: 68-85 days (females)
- Weight at study initiation: 214-233 g (females)
- Fasting period before study: no data
- Housing: singly in stainless steel wire-mesh cages
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ground Kliba feed 343 rat/mouse/hamster, ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Acclimation period: at least 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20-24
- Humidity (%): 30-70
- Air changes (per hr): no data (air-conditioned)
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

IN-LIFE DATES: no data

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: double-distilled water with Cremophor EL as emulsifier
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS: emulsified in double-distilled water containing 0.005% Cremophor EL. Prepared daily using a high-speed sonicator; a magnetic stirrer was used to keep the emulsion homogenous during dosing.

VEHICLE
- Justification for use and choice of vehicle (if other than water): to ensure even distribution of the test material
- Concentration in vehicle: 28.8, 144 or 288 mg/ml
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): 5 ml/kg bw/day
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Concentrations analysed by gas chromatography after homogenization by the addition of dioxane.
Details on mating procedure:
- Impregnation procedure: cohoused
- If cohoused:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1 male to 1-4 females
- Length of cohabitation: overnight
- Further matings after two unsuccessful attempts: no
- Verification of same strain and source of both sexes: yes
- Proof of pregnancy: sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
- Any other deviations from standard protocol: no
Duration of treatment / exposure:
days 6-15 post coitum
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Duration of test:
20 days
Doses / concentrations
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0, 144, 720 or 1440 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
8-10 females
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
other: double-distilled water
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: based on equimolar dose levels as this was a study to compare toxicity of various C7-11 alcohols
- Rationale for animal assignment (if not random): random

Examinations

Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: daily

FOOD CONSUMPTION: yes

WATER CONSUMPTION: no

POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS: Yes
- Sacrifice on gestation day #20
- Organs examined: uterus
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes
Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: Yes
- Number of corpora lutea: Yes
- Number of implantations: Yes
- Number of early resorptions: Yes
- Number of late resorptions: Yes
- Other: live foetuses, dead foetuses, numbers of implantations were shown as: live foetuses, dead implantations, early resorptions (stained), early & late resorptions (unnstained), dead foetuses; conception rates and pre & post implantation losses were calculated.
Fetal examinations:
- External examinations: Yes: all per litter
- Soft tissue examinations: Yes: half per litter
- Skeletal examinations: Yes: half per litter
- Head examinations: yes: half per litter
Statistics:
Dunnetts test for most reproductive parameters and Fishers exact test for evaluaton of conception rate and all foetal findings.
Indices:
no data
Historical control data:
none

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

Maternal developmental toxicity

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:no effects

Details on maternal toxic effects:
No maternal toxicity or deaths occurred. There were no differences in body weight gain between the treated and control groups on days 0, 6, 15 or 20 and no differences in food consumption was evident. No differences were seen in the uterus, placental and foetal weights and the number of corpora lutea, implantation sites and live foetuses per dam were similar between the groups.

- Number pregnant per dose level: water control 9, aqueous emulsifier control 10, 144 mg/kg bw/day 9, 720 mg/kg bw/day 10, 1440 mg/kg bw/day 8.
- Number aborting: None
- Number of resorptions: comparable in treated and control groups. Resorptions/dam (mean) 1.2, 1.1 (control groups) 1.0, 1.2 and 1.1 for low, mid and high dose groups respectively.
- Number of implantations: comparable in treated and control groups. Implantation sites/dam (mean) 15.0, 15.7 (control groups) 14.8, 15.8 and 13.9 for low, mid and high dose groups.
- Post implantation loss: comparable in treated and control groups.
- Number of corpora lutea: comparable in treated and control groups. Corpora lutea/dam (mean) 16.1, 16.0 (control groups) 17.0, 17.0 and 15.6 for low, mid and high dose groups respectively.
- Duration of Pregnancy: comparable in treated and control groups.

No haematology, clinical chemistry, macro- or microscopic examinations were carried out and organs were not weighed (other than the uterus).

Effect levels (maternal animals)

open allclose all
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 440 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 440 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity

Results (fetuses)

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
No embryotoxic effects were detected that were attributed to the treatment. Similar numbers of abnormalities occurred in the treated and control groups for the following parameters: bilateral renal pelvis, hydroureter, thoracic vertebral body dumbbell shaped, skeletal variations and skeletal retardations.

- Litter size and weights: comparable in treated and control groups. Foetal weights (mean) 3.8, 3.82 (controls) 3.88, 3.79 and 3.82 for low, mid and high dose groups respectively.
- Number viable: viability was comparable to controls. Live foetuses/dam (mean) 13.8, 14.6 (controls) 13.8, 14.6 and 12.8 for low, mid and high dose groups respectively.
- Sex ratio: Not reported.
- Total malformations, variations and retardations: the incidence was unaffected by treatment. Litters (%) with malformations (no. of litters) 11.1% (1), 20.0% (2)(controls) 11.1% (1), 40.0% (4) and 12.5% (1) for low, mid and high dose groups respectively.
- Litters (%) with variations (no. of litters) 88.9% (8), 100% (10) (controls) 100% (9), 100% (10) and 100% (8) for low, mid and high dose groups respectively.
- Litters (%) with retardations (no. of litters) 88.9% (8), 100% (10) (controls) 77.8% (7), 90.0% (9) and 87.5% (7) for low, mid and high dose groups respectively.

Fetal abnormalities

Abnormalities:
not specified

Overall developmental toxicity

Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
In a reliable study, conducted to OECD guideline 414, a mixture of mainly linear C7-9-11 alcohols exhibited no maternal or foetal toxicity after oral administration to rats on gestation days 6-15 at up to 1440 mg/kg bw/day. The study was performed to GLP.
Executive summary:

[In view of the structural and chemical similarities, it is considered that the results of this study can be used for read-across to Undecanol linear and branched.]