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Toxicological information

Genetic toxicity: in vitro

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Administrative data

in vitro gene mutation study in mammalian cells
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
2 (reliable with restrictions)

Data source

Reference Type:
In vitro antiproliferative/cytotoxic activity on cancer cell lines of a cardanol and a cardol enriched from Thai Apis mellifera propolis
Dungporn Teerasripreecha1, Preecha Phuwapraisirisan2, Songchan Puthong3, Kiyoshi Kimura4, Masayuki Okuyama5, Haruhide Mori5, Atsuo Kimura5 and Chanpen Chanchao1,6
Bibliographic source:
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:27

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
antiproliferation/cytotoxic activity of Cardanol against five cancer cell lines.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
mammalian cell gene mutation assay

Test material



Species / strain
Species / strain / cell type:
mammalian cell line, other:
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Metabolic activation:
not specified
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
Cells were then incubated as above for 72 h before 10 μl of 5 mg/ ml MTT was added and incubated for another 4 h. The supernatant was then removed, the cells permeabilized and the formazan crystals dissolved by aspiration in 150 μl of DMSO and 25 μl of 0.1 M glycine prior to measuring the absorbance at 540 nm by a microplate reader. Three replications of each trial were performed. By assuming an equal mitochondrial metabolic activity per living cell, the absorbance is then related to the relative number of viable cells and so is reduced, relative to the control, by any antiproliferation and/or cytotoxic activity of the test compound.

Results and discussion

Test results
Species / strain:
mammalian cell line, other:
Metabolic activation:
not specified
not specified
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
IC50 :10.8 to 29.3 μg/ml
Vehicle controls validity:
not specified
Untreated negative controls validity:
not specified
Positive controls validity:
not specified
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Migrated from field 'Test system'.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results (migrated information):negativeThe Cardanol shows negative cytotoxic effects in mammalian cell lines.
Executive summary:

Cardanol and cardol did not account for the net antiproliferation/cytotoxic activity of the crude extracts suggesting the existence of other potent compounds or synergistic interactions in the propolis extracts.Cardanol could be alternative antiproliferative agent for future development as anti-cancer drugs.