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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl} diazen-1-yl] naphthalene-1,3,6 -trisulfonic acid. The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. 7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl}diazen-1-yl]naphthalene- 1,3,6- trisulfonic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to be not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is from OECD QSAR Tolbox version 3.3 and the supporting QMRF report has been attached
Reference:
Composition 0
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Refer below principle
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using OECD QSAR Tolbox version 3.3, 2017
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Test material information:
Composition 1
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of the test material: 7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl}diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid
- IUPAC name: 7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl}diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid
- Molecular formula: C20H16ClN9O10S3
- Molecular weight: 674.0504 g/mol
- Substance type: Organic
- Smiles: S(=O)(=O)(c1c(/N=N/c2c(NC(=O)N)cc(Nc3nc(nc(n3)Cl)N)cc2)cc2c(S(=O)(=O)O)cc(S(=O)(=O)O)cc2c1)O
Target gene:
Histidine
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Details on mammalian cell lines (if applicable):
Not applicable
Additional strain characteristics:
not specified
Cytokinesis block (if used):
No data
Metabolic activation:
with
Metabolic activation system:
S9 metabolic activation system
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
No data
Vehicle:
No data
Negative controls:
not specified
Solvent controls:
not specified
True negative controls:
not specified
Positive controls:
not specified
Positive control substance:
not specified
Details on test system and conditions:
No data
Rationale for test conditions:
No data
Evaluation criteria:
Prediction is done considering a dose dependent increase in the number of revertants/plate
Statistics:
No data
Species / strain:
other: TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Metabolic activation:
with
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity:
not specified
Vehicle controls valid:
not specified
Negative controls valid:
not specified
Positive controls valid:
not specified
Remarks on result:
no mutagenic potential (based on QSAR/QSPR prediction)
Additional information on results:
No data

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: "Gene mutation"
Estimation method: Takes highest mode value from the 8 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" or "e" or "f" )  and ("g" and ( not "h") )  )  and "i" )  and "j" )  and "k" )  and ("l" and ( not "m") )  )  and ("n" and "o" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Naphthalene sulfonic acids, condensates by OECD HPV Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Substituted Triazines (Acute toxicity) by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SN1 AND SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation AND SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Aromatic phenylureas by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SNAr AND SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution on activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds AND SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution on activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds >> Activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SNAr AND SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution AND SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution >> Halo-triazines by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid moiety OR Anilines (Unhindered) OR Substituted Ureas OR Triazines, Aromatic by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinones OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation >> Haloalkenes with Electron-Withdrawing Groups OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Amino Anthraquinones OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Aminoacridine DNA Intercalators OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> DNA Intercalators with Carboxamide Side Chain OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Quinones OR Non-specific OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR Radical OR Radical >> Generation of ROS by glutathione depletion (indirect) OR Radical >> Generation of ROS by glutathione depletion (indirect) >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation >> Polynitroarenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Amino Anthraquinones OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitro Azoarenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroaniline Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> p-Aminobiphenyl Analogs OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Quinones OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Amino Anthraquinones OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> p-Aminobiphenyl Analogs OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Nitroaromatics OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitro Azoarenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroaniline Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitrobiphenyls and Bridged Nitrobiphenyls OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Polynitroarenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ions OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ions >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Haloalkenes with Electron-Withdrawing Groups OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Sulfonates and Sulfates OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation >> Alkylphosphates, Alkylthiophosphates and Alkylphosphonates OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No superfragment by Superfragments ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not bioavailable by Lipinski Rule Oasis ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Similarity boundary:Target: NC(=O)Nc1cc(Nc2nc(N)nc(Cl)n2)ccc1N=Nc1cc2c(cc1S(O)(=O)=O)cc(S(O)(=O)=O)cc2S(O)(=O)=O
Threshold=10%,
Dice(Atom centered fragments)
Atom type; Count H attached; Hybridization

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as (!Undefined)Group All Lipid Solubility < 0.01 g/kg AND Group All Melting Point > 200 C by Skin irritation/corrosion Exclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as (!Undefined)Group CNS Surface Tension > 62 mN/m OR Group All log Kow < -3.1 OR Group CNS Melting Point > 120 C OR Group CNS Melting Point > 50 C OR Group CNS Molecular Weight > 620 g/mol by Skin irritation/corrosion Exclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= -2.93

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 4.38

Conclusions:
7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl}diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.
Executive summary:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl}diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-1,3,6 -trisulfonic acid. The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. 7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl}diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to be not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Gene mutation in vitro:

Prediction model based estimation for the target chemical and data from read across chemicals have been reviewed to determine the mutagenic nature of

7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl}diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-1,3,6 -trisulfonic acid. The studies are as mentioned below:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl}diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-1,3,6 -trisulfonic acid. The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. 7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl}diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Gene mutation toxicity was predicted for 7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl}diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid using the battery approach from Danish QSAR database (2017). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium bacteria in the Ames test. The end point for gene mutation has been modeled in the Danish QSAR using the three software systems Leadscope, CASE Ultra and SciQSAR. Based on predictions from these three systems, a fourth and overall battery prediction is made. The battery prediction is made using the so called Battery algorithm. With the battery approach it is in many cases possible to reduce “noise” from the individual model estimates and thereby improve accuracy and/or broaden the applicability domain. Gene mutation toxicity study as predicted by Danish QSAR for 7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl}diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acidis negative and hence the chemical is predicted to not classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

The ability of 7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl}diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid to induce chromosomal aberration was predicted using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using Danish QSAR database (2017). The end point for chromosome aberrations has been modeled in the Danish QSAR using the three software systems Leadscope, CASE Ultra and SciQSAR. Based on predictions from these three systems, a fourth and overall battery prediction is made. The battery prediction is made using the so called Battery algorithm. With the battery approach it is in many cases possible to reduce “noise” from the individual model estimates and thereby improve accuracy and/or broaden the applicability domain. 7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl}diazen-1-yl] naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid does not induce chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and hence is predicted to not classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

In a study for structurally and functionally similar read across chemical by Ishidate et al (Food and Chemical Toxicology, 1984), Gene mutation toxicity study was performed to determine the mutagenic nature of Food red 102 (RA CAS no 2611 -82 -7). The study was performed using S. typhimurium strains TA92, TA1535, TA100, TA1537, TA94 and TA98 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. The test was performed as per the preincubation assay at six different concentrations with 5 mg/plate being the maximum concentration. The chemical was dissolved in phosphate buffer. Preincubation was performed for 20 mins and the exposure duration was for 48 hrs. The result was considered positive if the number of colonies found was twice the number in the control (exposed to the appropriate solvent or untreated). Food red 102 did not induce a doubling of revertant colonies over the control using S. typhimurium strains TA92, TA1535, TA100, TA1537, TA94 and TA98 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

In the same study by Ishidate et al, Chromosomal aberration study was performed to determine the mutagenic nature of structurally and functionally similar read across chemical Food red 102 (RA CAS no 2611 -82 -7). The cells were exposed to the test material at three different doses with 1 mg/mL being the maximum concentration for 24 and 48 hr. Colcemid (final concn 0.2µg/ml) was added to the culture 2 hr before cell harvesting. The cells were then trypsinized and suspended in a hypotonic KCI solution (0.075 M) for 13 min at room temperature. After centrifugation the cells were fixed with acetic acid-methanol (1:3, v/v) and spread on clean glass slides. After air-drying, the slides were stained with Giemsa solution for 12-15 min. A hundred well-spread metaphases were observed under the microscope. In the present studies, no metabolic activation systems were applied. The incidence of polyploid cells as well as of cells with structural chromosomal aberrations such as chromatid or chromosome gaps, breaks, exchanges, ring formations, fragmentations and others, was recorded on each culture plate. Untreated cells and solvent-treated cells served as negative controls, in which the incidence of aberrations was usually less than 3.0%. The results were considered to be negative if the incidence was less than 4.9%, equivocal if it was between 5.0 and 9.9%, and positive if it was more than 10.0%. Food red 102 did not induce chromosomal aberration in chinese hamster fibroblast cell line CHL and hence is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

In another study performed by Zeiger et al (Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 1987), Salmonella/microsome test in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation and in the presence of liver S-9 from Aroclor-induced male Sprague-Dawley rats and Syrian hamsters was performed to evaluate the mutagenic nature of the read across chemical Direct Red 89 (RA CAS no 6358 -29 -8) using S. typhimurium tester strains TA1535, TA97, TA98 and TA100. The study was performed as per the preincubation assay by preincubation for 20 mins. The test compound was used at a dosage level of 0, 100, 333, 1000, 3333 or 10000 µg/plate in the preincubation assay of 48 hrs. Concurrent solvent and positive controls were also included in the study. Direct Red 39 did not induce gene mutation in theS. typhimuriumtester strains TA1535, TA97, TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence is negative for mutation in vitro.

Based on the data available for the target chemical and its read across, 7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl}diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the data available for the target chemical and its read across,7-[(E)-2-{4-[(4-amino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-(carbamoylamino)phenyl} diazen-1 -yl]naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.