Registration Dossier

Environmental fate & pathways

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

Currently viewing:

Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Reference
Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
calculation (if not (Q)SAR)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Data is from computational model developed by USEPA
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Modeling database
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The Biodegradation Probability Program (BIOWIN) estimates the probability for the rapid aerobic biodegradation of an organic chemical in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms .The model is part of the EpiSuite program of the US-EPA. Estimations are made with BIOWIN version 4.10Estimates are based upon fragment constants that were developed using multiple linear and non-linear regression analyses. Experimental biodegradation data for the multiple linear and non-linear regressions were obtained from Syracuse Research Corporation's (SRC) data base of evaluated biodegradation data (Howard et. al., 1987). This version (v4.10) designates the models as follows (see also Boethling et al. 2003):
Biowin1 = linear probability model
Biowin2 = nonlinear probability model
Biowin3 = expert survey ultimate biodegradation model
Biowin4 = expert survey primary biodegradation model
Biowin5 = MITI linear model
Biowin6 = MITI nonlinear model
Biowin7 = anaerobic biodegradation model
GLP compliance:
not specified
Oxygen conditions:
other: aerobic (Biowin 1-6) and anaerobic (Biowin 7)
Inoculum or test system:
other: mixed populations of environmental microorganisms
Duration of test (contact time):
3.669 d
Details on study design:
Using the computer tool BIOWIN v4.10 by US-EPA (EPIWIN) the aerobic as well as the anaerobic biodegradability of the test material can be estimated. The follwoing seven different models are used by the tool: Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI LInear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (calles Biowin 1-7, respectively). Due to this results the overall prediction of readily biodegradability is done for the desired chemical.
Key result
Parameter:
other: Half-life
Value:
50
Sampling time:
3.669 d
Remarks on result:
other: Other details not known
Details on results:
Biowin1 (Linear Model Prediction) :0.8054: Biodegrades Fast
Biowin2 (Non-Linear Model Prediction): 0.8221: Biodegrades Fast
Biowin3 (Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe): 2.9322: Weeks
Biowin4 (Primary Biodegradation Timeframe): 3.6688: Days-Weeks
Biowin5 (MITI Linear Model Prediction) : 0.5223: Biodegrades Fast
Biowin6 (MITI Non-Linear Model Prediction): 0.6028: Biodegrades Fast
Biowin7 (Anaerobic Model Prediction): 0.0636: Does Not Biodegrade Fast
Ready Biodegradability Prediction: YES

BIOWIN (v4.10) Program Results:

==============================

SMILES : O=C(c(cccc1O)c1)C

CHEM : Ethanone, 1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-

MOL FOR: C8 H8 O2

MOL WT : 136.15

--------------------------- BIOWIN v4.10 Results ----------------------------

Biowin1 (Linear Model Prediction) : Biodegrades Fast

Biowin2 (Non-Linear Model Prediction): Biodegrades Fast

Biowin3 (Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe): Weeks

Biowin4 (Primary Biodegradation Timeframe): Days-Weeks

Biowin5 (MITI Linear Model Prediction) : Biodegrades Fast

Biowin6 (MITI Non-Linear Model Prediction): Biodegrades Fast

Biowin7 (Anaerobic Model Prediction): Does Not Biodegrade Fast

Ready Biodegradability Prediction: YES

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

TYPE | NUM | Biowin1 FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

Frag | 1 | Aromatic alcohol [-OH] | 0.1158 | 0.1158

Frag | 1 | Ketone [-C-C(=O)-C-] | 0.0068 | 0.0068

MolWt| * | Molecular Weight Parameter | | -0.0648

Const| * | Equation Constant | | 0.7475

============+============================================+=========+=========

RESULT | Biowin1 (Linear Biodeg Probability) | | 0.8054

============+============================================+=========+=========

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

TYPE | NUM | Biowin2 FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

Frag | 1 | Aromatic alcohol [-OH] | 0.9086 | 0.9086

Frag | 1 | Ketone [-C-C(=O)-C-] | -0.4530 | -0.4530

MolWt| * | Molecular Weight Parameter | | -1.9334

============+============================================+=========+=========

RESULT | Biowin2 (Non-Linear Biodeg Probability) | | 0.8221

============+============================================+=========+=========

A Probability Greater Than or Equal to 0.5 indicates --> Biodegrades Fast

A Probability Less Than 0.5 indicates --> Does NOT Biodegrade Fast

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

TYPE | NUM | Biowin3 FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

Frag | 1 | Aromatic alcohol [-OH] | 0.0564 | 0.0564

Frag | 1 | Ketone [-C-C(=O)-C-] | -0.0225 | -0.0225

MolWt| * | Molecular Weight Parameter | | -0.3009

Const| * | Equation Constant | | 3.1992

============+============================================+=========+=========

RESULT | Biowin3 (Survey Model - Ultimate Biodeg) | | 2.9322

============+============================================+=========+=========

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

TYPE | NUM | Biowin4 FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

Frag | 1 | Aromatic alcohol [-OH] | 0.0397 | 0.0397

Frag | 1 | Ketone [-C-C(=O)-C-] | -0.0222 | -0.0222

MolWt| * | Molecular Weight Parameter | | -0.1964

Const| * | Equation Constant | | 3.8477

============+============================================+=========+=========

RESULT | Biowin4 (Survey Model - Primary Biodeg) | | 3.6688

============+============================================+=========+=========

Result Classification: 5.00 -> hours 4.00 -> days 3.00 -> weeks

(Primary & Ultimate) 2.00 -> months 1.00 -> longer

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

TYPE | NUM | Biowin5 FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

Frag | 1 | Aromatic alcohol [-OH] | 0.0642 | 0.0642

Frag | 1 | Ketone [-C-C(=O)-C-] | 0.1177 | 0.1177

Frag | 4 | Aromatic-H | 0.0082 | 0.0329

Frag | 1 | Methyl [-CH3] | 0.0004 | 0.0004

MolWt| * | Molecular Weight Parameter | | -0.4051

Const| * | Equation Constant | | 0.7121

============+============================================+=========+=========

RESULT | Biowin5 (MITI Linear Biodeg Probability) | | 0.5223

============+============================================+=========+=========

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

TYPE | NUM | Biowin6 FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

Frag | 1 | Aromatic alcohol [-OH] | 0.4884 | 0.4884

Frag | 1 | Ketone [-C-C(=O)-C-] | 0.8334 | 0.8334

Frag | 4 | Aromatic-H | 0.1201 | 0.4806

Frag | 1 | Methyl [-CH3] | 0.0194 | 0.0194

MolWt| * | Molecular Weight Parameter | | -3.9305

============+============================================+=========+=========

RESULT |Biowin6 (MITI Non-Linear Biodeg Probability)| | 0.6028

============+============================================+=========+=========

A Probability Greater Than or Equal to 0.5 indicates --> Readily Degradable

A Probability Less Than 0.5 indicates --> NOT Readily Degradable

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

TYPE | NUM | Biowin7 FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

Frag | 1 | Aromatic alcohol [-OH] | 0.0807 | 0.0807

Frag | 1 | Ketone [-C-C(=O)-C-] | -0.3919 | -0.3919

Frag | 4 | Aromatic-H | -0.0954 | -0.3817

Frag | 1 | Methyl [-CH3] | -0.0796 | -0.0796

Const| * | Equation Constant | | 0.8361

============+============================================+=========+=========

RESULT | Biowin7 (Anaerobic Linear Biodeg Prob) | | 0.0636

============+============================================+=========+=========

A Probability Greater Than or Equal to 0.5 indicates --> Biodegrades Fast

A Probability Less Than 0.5 indicates --> Does NOT Biodegrade Fast

Ready Biodegradability Prediction: (YES or NO)

----------------------------------------------

Criteria for the YES or NO prediction: If the Biowin3 (ultimate survey

model) result is "weeks" or faster (i.e. "days", "days to weeks", or

"weeks" AND the Biowin5 (MITI linear model) probability is >= 0.5, then

the prediction is YES (readily biodegradable). If this condition is not

satisfied, the prediction is NO (not readily biodegradable). This method

is based on application of Bayesian analysis to ready biodegradation data

(see Help). Biowin5 and 6 also predict ready biodegradability, but for

degradation in the OECD301C test only; using data from the Chemicals

Evaluation and Research Institute Japan (CERIJ) database.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different Biowin 1-7 models of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that 3'-Hydroxyacetophenone is expected to be readily biodegradable.
Executive summary:

Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2016) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test compound 3'-Hydroxyacetophenone (CAS no. 121 -71 -1) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI LInear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that 3'-Hydroxyacetophenone is expected to be readily biodegradable.

Description of key information

Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2016) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test compound 3'-Hydroxyacetophenone (CAS no. 121 -71 -1) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI LInear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that 3'-Hydroxyacetophenone is expected to be readily biodegradable.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
readily biodegradable

Additional information

Various predicted data for the test compound3'-Hydroxyacetophenone(CAS No. 121-71-1) and for its read across substance were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2016) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test compound 3'-Hydroxyacetophenone (CAS no. 121 -71 -1) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI LInear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that 3'-Hydroxyacetophenone is expected to be readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation study was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (CAS no. 99-96-7) (J-CHECK, 2016). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. The percentage degradation of read across substance was determined to be 90% by BOD and 100% by both TOC removal and HPLC in 14 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 4 -Hydroxybenzoic acid was considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation study was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance Phenol (CAS no. 108-95-2) (J-CHECK, 2016). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. The percentage degradation of read across substance was determined to be 85% by BOD, 95% by TOC removal and 100% by UV-Vis in 14 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, Phenol was considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across 3-Ethylphenol (CAS no. 620-17-7) (J-CHECK, 2016). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. The percentage degradation of read across substance was determined to be 92% by BOD, 98%by TOC removal and 100% by HPLC in 28 days. Thus, based percentage degradation, 3-Ethylphenol was considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation study was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance Salicylic acid (CAS no. 69-72-7) (J-CHECK, 2016). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. The percentage degradation of read across substance was determined to be 88.1% by BOD, 97.6% by TOC removal and 100% by both UV-Vis and HPLC in 14 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, Salicylic acid was considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance Phenol (CAS no. 108-95-2) by bacteria as a test inoculum (Takashi Kameya et. al; 1995). Seeding bacteria was used as a test inoculum. The seeding bacteria had been cultured in a continuous anaerobic bioreactor at 37 + 1°C.Synthetic sewage, composed of glucose, peptone and corn steap liquor (carbon ratio = 1:1:2), is supplied into the reactor (3.0 g-C/l, 8.0 g-CS./.d). In this culture, > 95% acidic decomposition and > 90% methanogenic decomposition are achieved.

A standard test using 50 ml vials (total capacity: 68 ml) was employed. Ten test vials were prepared under the same conditions, and they were set in a water bath at 37°C ± 0.5”C. The original solution was added to the test inoculum and organic medium in oxygen-free water. At the starting time and after every week, two vials were opened simultaneously, and the concentration of organic compound was analyzed. The concentration of organic compound was determined by dissolved organic carbon (DOC).Biodegradation ratio is determined by analysing the decrease of DOC in the standard test. Reproducibility is confirmed by the biodegradation ratio of benzoic acid being > 78% after 14 days.

The percentage degradation of the read across compound was determined to be less than 96% in 21 days in standard test Thus, based on the percentage degradation, the read across chemical Phenol was considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance Phenol (CAS no. 108-95-2) by anaerobic bacteria as a test inoculum (The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 170, Pg. no. 31-41, 1995) . Two test were carried out by using different conc. of test chemical and inoculum. Anaerobic bacteria was used as a test inoculum. The cultivated bacteria was prepared for seeding as follows. The bacteria suspension was drowned, homogenized, and separated with a centrifuge at 3000 rev./min for 10 min. The deposit was washed by the basal medium solution and separated again with a centrifuge. The deposit was dissolved again in the basal medium solution and its concentration was determined. This original suspension of bacteria was seeded in the test vials and its concentration was reconfirmed. The seeding bacteria had been cultured by a synthetic sewage in a continuous bioreactor at 37 + 1°C. 100 and 30 mg/l conc. was used for both inoculum and test substance conc., respectively.

The test involve the use of 50 ml vials (total capacity: 68 ml). Ten test vials were prepared under the same conditions, and they were set in a water bath at 37°C ± 0.5”C. The original solution was added to the test inoculum and basal medium solution, which was prepared by organic medium and/or inorganic medium in oxygen-free water. At the starting time and after every week, two vials were opened simultaneously, and the concentration of organic compound was analyzed. The concentration of organic compound was determined by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) or chromatography. Biodegradation ratio is determined by analyzisng the decrease of DOC. The percentage degradation of the read across compound was determined to be 60% in test 1 and 55% in 7 days in test 2, respectively. Thus, based on the percentage degradation, the read across chemical Phenol was considered to be readily biodegradable under the given test conditions.

 

On the basis of above results for target and read across substance, it can be concluded that the test substance 3'-Hydroxyacetophenone can be expected to be readily biodegradable in nature.