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Toxicological information

Repeated dose toxicity: oral

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2015-03-23 to 2015-04-20
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2017
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2016
Report Date:
2016

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 407 (Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents)
Version / remarks:
2008-10-03
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Remarks:
signed 2014-05-14
Limit test:
yes

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder
Details on test material:
- State of aggregation: solid, yellow powder, odourless.
Specific details on test material used for the study:
STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: at room temperature, kept dry and stored in a tightly closed container.

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Crl:CD(SD)
Details on species / strain selection:
Selected because of its proven suitability in toxicology studies and to comply with regulatory requirements for testing in a rodent animal species.
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Laboratories Germany GmbH, Sandhofer Weg 7, 97633 Sulzfeld, Germany
- Age at first dosing: males: 36 days; females: 36 days
- Weight at first dosing: males: 154.8 g - 171.6 g; females: 128.0 g - 143.2 g
- Housing: kept singly in MAKROLON cages (type III plus) with a basal surface of approx. 39 x 23 cm and a height of approx. 18 cm; bedding material: granulated textured wood (Granulat A2, J. Brandenburg, 49424 Goldenstedt, Germany).
- Diet (ad libitum): commercial ssniff® R/M-H V1530 diet (ssniff Spezialdiäten GmbH, 59494 Soest, Germany)
- Water (ad libitum): tap water
- Acclimation period: 5 days

DETAILS OF FOOD AND WATER QUALITY: no contaminants above the limitiations were noted for drinking water.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature: 22 °C ± 3 °C (maximum range)
- Relative humidity: 55 % ± 15 % (maximum range)
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Details on route of administration:
According to the expected route of exposure.
Vehicle:
other: 0.8 % aqueous hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose gel
Details on oral exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
The test item was suspended in the vehicle to the appropriate concentration. The administration formulation was continuously agitated by stirring throughout the entire administration procedure.
The administration formulation was freshly prepared every day.
Administration volume: 10 mL/kg bw/day
The amount of the test item was adjusted to each animal's current body weight daily.

VEHICLE
- Source: FAGRON GmbH & Co. KG, 22885 Barsbüttel, Germany
- Batch no.: 13D03-N03
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
For the test item that was mixed with the vehicle, tests by ICP-MS were conducted to determine the concentration, stability and homogeneity of the test item in the formulations (Fraunhofer IME, report no. EBR-153/6-27/y).
For the analysis of the test item-vehicle mixtures, samples of approximately 10 mL were taken at the following times and stored at ≤-20 °C:

1) At study initiation:
- analysis of stability and concentration: immediately after preparation of the administration formulation as well as after 8 and 24 hours storage at room temperature (number of samples: 3).
- homogeneity: at the start of administration, during (middle) administration and before administration to the last animal of the test item treated group (number of samples: 3).

2) at study termination:
- analysis of concentration: during treatment always before administration to the last animal of the test item treated group (number of samples: 1).
Duration of treatment / exposure:
28 days
Frequency of treatment:
once daily
Doses / concentrations
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5 males / 5 females
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: in agreement with the Sponsor and based on available toxicity data a limit test was performed.
Positive control:
none

Examinations

Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule (clinical signs): before and after dosing at each time of dosing as well as regularly throughout the working day from 7.30 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. and on Saturdays and Sundays from 8.00 a.m. to 12.00 noon with a final check performed at approx. 4.00 p.m.
- Time schedule (mortality): early in the morning and again in the afternoon of each working day as well as on Saturdays and Sundays with a final check at approx 4.00 p.m.
- Cage side observations checked: clinical signs & mortality

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: once before the first exposure and once a week thereafter (1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours after administration) as well as in test week 4 prior to any laboratory investigations.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: at the time of group allocation, on the day of commencement of treatment and once a week thereafter (always on the same day of the week)

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: Yes
The quantity of food left by individual animals was recorded on a weekly basis throughout the experimental period. Food intake per rat (g/rat/week) was calculated using the total amount of food given to and left by each rat in each group on completion of a treatment week.
The relative food consumption (in g/kg bw/day) was determined
- Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: daily

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: prior to the start of administration and at the end of test week 4
- Dose groups that were examined: all dose groups

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination (on the day of dissection)
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes, isoflurane anaesthesia
- Animals fasted: Yes, overnight
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: haemoglobin content, erythrocytes, leucocytes, differential blood count (relative and absolute; neutrophilic granulocytes, eosinophilic granulocytes, basophilic granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, and large unstained cells), reticulocytes, platelets, haematocrit value, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, thromboplastin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at study termination (on the day of dissection)
- Animals fasted: Yes, overnight
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined: albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, bile acids, bilirubin (total), cholesterol (total), creatinine, glucose, protein (total), urea (blood), calcium, chloride, potassium, sodium, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase

URINALYSIS: No

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: in test week 4 approx. 1 to 2 hours after dosing and before any blood sampling
- Dose groups that were examined: all dose groups
- Battery of functions tested: sensory reactivity / grip strength / motor activity
1) Observational screening: righting reflex, body temperature, salivation, startle response, respiration, mouth breathing, urination, convulsions, pilo-erection, diarrhoea, pupil size, pupil response, lacrimation, impaired gait, stereotype, toe pinch, tail pinch, wire maneuver, hind leg splay, positional passivity, tremors, positive geotropism, limb rotation, and auditory function
2) Functional tests: grip strength and locomotor activity

IMMUNOLOGY: No

TOXICOKINETC: Yes (please refer to Fraunhofer IME, report no. EBR-153/6-27/y)
Urine and plasma samples were obtained at study termination. Urine and plasma samples were analysed for zirconium and praseodymium levels by ICP-MS.
- urine sample: individual urine samples were collected from all animals before scheduled sacrifice following the last administration on test day 28. The animals were placed in metabolic cages during a 24-hour collection period, directly after the last oral administration. The urine weight/animal was determined upon removal of the sample. Pooled blank urine were obtained from spare animals.
- plasma sample: on the scheduled day of sacrifice, a terminal blood sample was collected from all animals under isoflurane anaesthesia in order to obtain LiHeparin plasma/animal. Afterwards, the animals were sacrificed and dissected.
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes

On test day 29 (approx. one day after the last administration), the animals were sacrifice and macroscopically inspected. All superficial tissues were examined visually and by palpation and the cranial roof was removed to allow observation of the brain, pituitary gland and cranial nerves. After ventral midline incision and skin reflection all subcutaneous tissues were examined. The condition of the thoracic viscera was noted with due attention to the thymus, lymph nodes and heart.
The abdominal viscera were examined before and after removal, the urinary bladder was examined externally and by palpation. The gastro-intestinal tract was examined as a whole and the stomach and caecum were incised and examined. The lungs were removed and all pleural surfaces examined. The liver and the kidneys were examined. Any abnormalities in the appearance and size of the gonads, adrenal glands, uterus, intra-abdominal lymph nodes and accessory reproductive organs were recorded.

The weights of the following organs of all animals were determined before fixation: adrenal gland (2), brain, epididymis (2), heart, kidney (2), liver, ovary (2), spleen, testicle (2), thymus, as well as prostate and seminal vesicles with coagulating glands as a whole.
Paired organs were weighed individually and identified as left or right.

The following organs or parts of organs of all animals were fixed in 7% buffered formalin (exceptions: eyes fixed in Davidson's solution and testes in Bouin's solution): adrenal gland (2), bone (os femoris with joint), bone marrow (os femoris), brain (3 levels: cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla/pons), epididymis (2), eye with optic nerve (2), gross lesions observed, heart (3 levels: right and left ventricle, septum), large intestine (colon, rectum), small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, incl. Peyer´s patches; Swiss roll method), kidney and ureter (2), liver, lungs (with mainstem bronchi and bronchioles (preserved by inflation with fixative and then immersion)), lymph node (1, cervical), lymph node (1, mesenteric), mammary gland (male and female), muscle (skeletal, leg), nerve (sciatic), ovary (2), pituitary, prostate and seminal vesicles with coagulating glands, spinal cord (3 sections), spleen, stomach, testicle (2), thymus, thyroid (2) (incl. parathyroids), tissue masses or tumours (incl. regional lymph nodes), trachea (incl. larynx), urinary bladder, uterus (incl. cervix and oviducts), and vagina

The above-listed organs of all animals were examined histologically after preparation of paraffin sections and haematoxylin-eosin staining.
In addition, frozen sections of the heart, liver and one kidney were made, stained with Oil Red O and examined microscopically.
Parathyroids cannot always be identified macroscopically. They were examined microscopically if in the plane of section and in all cases where they were noted as grossly enlarged.
Statistics:
The test item-treated group was compared with the vehicle control group:
The following statistical methods were used:

1) STUDENT's t-test: all numerical functional tests / body weight / food consumption / haematology and coagulation / clinical biochemistry / relative and absolute organ weights (p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.01)
The following limits were used:
p = 0.05/0.01 about t = 2.3060/3.3554 (for 8 degrees of freedom)

2) Exact test of R. A. FISHER: histology (p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.01)

Results and discussion

Results of examinations

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
no effects observed
Ophthalmological findings:
no effects observed
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
not examined
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS
- no changes in behaviour or external appearance were noted for the male and female rats treated with 1000 mg zirconium praseodymium yellow zircon/kg bw/day or for the animals treated with the vehicle control.
- faeces of the control and test item-treated animals were formed normally.

MORTALITY
- none of the animals died prematurely

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT CHANGES
- no test item-related influence was observed for the body weight, the body weight gain and body weight at autopsy in the male and female rats treated with 1000 mg test item./day (data within the normal range).
- statistically significant differences in body weight of test item-treated animals compared to the control animals were recorded (not test item-related findings):
males (test week 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4): increased body weight (p ≤0.01 or p ≤ 0.05)

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE
- no test item-related changes in relative food consumption were noted for the male and female rats treated with 1000 mg test item/kg bw/day compared to the control group.

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE
- visual appraisal of the drinking water consumption did not reveal any test item-related influence.

OPHTHALMOLOGICAL FINDINGS
- ophthalmological examination revealed no changes of the eyes and the optic region in the male and female rats treated with 1000 mg zirconium praseodymium yellow zircon/kg bw/day or for the animals treated with the vehicle control.
- no pathological changes were noted on the adnexa oculi, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber, iris (pupil dilated), lens, vitreous body and fundus

HAEMATOLOGICAL FINDINGS
- no test item-related influence on haematological and coagulation parameters was noted for the male and female rats treated with 1000 mg zirconium praseodymium yellow zircon/kg bw/day compared to the control group.
- statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in haematological parameters of test item-treated animals compared to the control animals were recorded (not test item-related findings):
females (test day 29): increased platelets
males (test day 29): increased absolute monocytes and increased absolute basophilic granulocytes

CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY FINDINGS
- no test item-related influence in biochemical parameters was noted for the male and female rats treated with 1000 mg test item/kg bw/day compared to the control group.
- statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in biochemical parameters of test item-treated animals compared to the control animals were recorded (not test item-related findings):
feamles (test day 29): decreased albumin
males (test day 29): increased glucose and decreased chloride

ORGAN WEIGHT FINDINGS INCLUDING ORGAN / BODY WEIGHT RATIOS
- no test item-related changes in relative and absolute organ weights were noted for the male and female rats treated with 1000 mg zirconium praseodymium yellow zircon/kg bw/day compared to the control group.
- statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in organ weights of test item-treated animals compared with the control animals were recorded (not test item-related findings):
males (test day 29): increased absolute left epididymis weight, increased absolut right testis weight, increased absolute left kidney weight, increased absolute right kidney weight, increased relative spleen weight, and increased absolute spleen weight.
females (test day 29): decreased relative heart weight

BEHAVIOUR (FUNCTIONAL FINDINGS)
- neurological screening did not reveal any test item-related influence in the male and female rats treated with 1000 mg zirconium praseodymium yellow zircon/kg bw/day.
- examination results of the animals treated with the vehicle control were also in the normal range, although the values for the spontaneous motility appeared to be below the normal range.
- statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in neurological parameters of test item-treated animals compared to the control animals were recorded (not test item-related findings):
males (test week 4): decreased hindlimp grip strength

GROSS PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS
- none of the male and female rats treated with 1000 mg test item/kg bw/day revealed any test item-related macroscopic changes at necropsy on test day 29.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: NON-NEOPLASTIC
- histomorphological examination did not reveal any morphological changes which are considered to be related to the administration of the test item (no difference between the groups).
- inflammatory lesions in different organs are considered to be coincidental findings or spontaneous organ changes and are thus not test item-related (no differences were noted between the groups).
- fatty infiltration in the hepatocytes and in the tubular epithelial cells of the kidney in male and female rats of the control and the test item-treated group were within the physiological limits.
- involution of the thymus in the rats of both groups corresponded in type, incidence and severity to the age of the animals.
- coincidental findings from different organs in a small number of control and test item-treated animals are considered to be spontaneous organ changes and are thus not test item-related.
- no morphological differences were noted for any of the organs examined between the controls and the test item treated dose group. Type, incidence and severity of the lesions were comparable to the control animals.

Effect levels

Key result
Remarks on result:
not determinable due to absence of adverse toxic effects

Target system / organ toxicity

Critical effects observed:
no

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
NOAEL (oral; rats) > 1000 mg zirconium praseodymium yellow zircon/kg bw/day

No test item-related changes were observed for clinical signs, mortality, neurologically screening, body weight, food consumption, water consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, ophthalmology, gross pathology, and histopathology.