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Terrestrial toxicity of n-heptanoic acid was assessed on microbial populations (OECD 216 nitrification assay), earthworms (OECD 222 reproduction assay) and six species of plants representing a large area of the plant phylogenetical distribution (OECD 208 seedling emergence and growth assay). Microbes were the less sensitive trophic level with inhibition of nitrification occurring above 300 mg heptanoic acid per kg soil dw. Plant sensitivity was very species dependent, with NOEC/EC10 ranging from 1.2 mg/kg soil dw to above the highest tested concentration (100 mg/kg soil dw). Heptanoic acid mainly affected plant growth, as no effect was observed on emergence. No sign of phytotoxicity was observed in any treatment. Earthworms were less sensitive than the most sensitive plant, with a reproductive NOEC of 10 mg/kg soil dw.