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Long-term toxicity to fish

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Reference
Endpoint:
fish, juvenile growth test
Type of information:
experimental study
Remarks:
Public literature
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1994
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Benoit DA, Holcombe GW, Spehar RL (1991) Guidelines for conducting early life toxicity tests with Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Ecological Research Series EPA-600/3-91-063, 25 pp
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Water samples for chemical analyses were taken four times twice weekly during embryo-larval and 28-day larval tests. These water samples were taken alternately from each complete set of replicate tanks (6 tanks). The analyses of each set of 6 water samples included a replicated sample analysis for determination of percentage duplicate agreement, a spiked control sample and a series of analytical standards.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Stock solutions were prepared by dissolving the chemical in Lake Superior water using a high-speed stirrer. Stock solutions were prepared were prepared weekly depending on chemical stability. Stock solutions were transferred to a glass stock bottle inside the vented diluter enclosure using Teflon tubing and air pressure. During the test, a predetermined volume (mL/min) of stock solution was continuously pumped from the stock bottle into the mixing cell of the diluter system.
Test organisms (species):
Oryzias latipes
Details on test organisms:
The medaka used for all tests were obtained from the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth (ERL-D) culture unit.
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
28 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
The mean and range for total hardness was 45.8 (38.0 - 52.0) mg/L as CaCO3 for all tests. The mean and range of alkalinity was 45.9 (35.0 - 58.5) mg/L as CaCO3 for all tests.
Test temperature:
25 ± 1 °C
pH:
The arithmetic mean, standard deviation and range of pH readings for all tests was 7.88 ± 0.18 (7.31 - 8.85) N = 333
Dissolved oxygen:
Measurements obtained from all studies - 6.8 ± 0.7 (5.0 - 8.5) N = 339.
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Measured water concentrations:
28-day larval test: < 0.25, 0.27 ± 0.07, 0.47 ± 0.16, 0.92 ± 0.33, 1.92 ± 0.45, 4.85 ± 0.82
Details on test conditions:
Continuous-flow mini-diluter exposure systems with vented enclosures were used for all tests. The diluters generated five exposure concentrations and a control, all in replicate, with a dilution factor of 0.5. Exposure tanks were glass aquaria 18.5 x 14.0 x 13.0 cm deep. Each exposure tank had a 8.6 cm standpipe which resulted in a tank volume of 2.0 L. Flow rates and 90 % replacement times were (Sprague 1969) were 25 mL/min and 2.8 hours respectively, during all tests. Fluorescent lamps provided a light intensity that ranged from 12 to 25 lumens at the water surface. A 16-hour photoperiod was used for all tests.
 
The 28-day larval test was initiated by randomly distributing groups of 60 larvae. (0 - 3 days old) to each of the 12 exposure tanks. The test was started by placing groups of fish in tanks containing dilution water only and then starting the toxicant dosing pump so that appropriate test concentrations were achieved gradually within approximately 3 hours. Fish were fed live brine shrimp twice per day, Monday through Friday. Observations for determining larval survival were made daily. Dead organisms were removed during the daily tank cleaning procedure. 
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
other: MATC
Effect conc.:
1.33 mg/L
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.92 mg/L
Details on results:
Survival and growth of medaka were significantly reduced by benzyl acetate concentrations of 1.92 mg/L and above (Table 1). Based on these effects, the estimated MATC for benzyl acetate lies between 0.92 and 1.92 mg/L. The chronic value LC50 for benzyl acetate for medaka was 1.33 mg/L. NOEC was 0.92 mg/l
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Growth data and normalized hatch and survival data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with an F-test of significance (p = 0.05) and to
subsequent analysis with Dunnett's one-sided comparison (p = 0.05) of treatment means to control means (Steel and Torrie 1960). Mean chronic values were determined for all nine chemicals by calculating the geometric mean of the estimated MATC concentrations.

 

Control

Tank No. 2

Tank No. 3

Tank No. 4

Tank No. 5

Tank No. 6

28-Day Larval Test

Measured Water Concentrations

< 0.25a

0.27 ± 0.07b

0.47 ± 0.16

0.92 ± 0.33

1.92 ± 0.45

4.85 ± 0.82

% Survivald

98.3

95.8

99.2

98.3

19.2

6.6

28-Day Weights (mg)

30.6 ± 10.1

30.3 ± 10.5

31.2 ± 10.7

31.9 ± 12.0

7.65 ± 4.71e

1.88 ± 0.64e

 

aDetection limit of the analytical measurement procedure

bMean± standard deviation

cBased on 20 organisms exposed per concentration

dBased on 120 organisms exposed per concentration

eSignificantly different than controls (p=0.05)

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The chronic study with benzyl acetate were carried out under flow-through test conditions, test species was medaka (Oryzias latipes). The chronic MATC was calculated to be 1.33 mg/L.. NOEC value was 0.92 mg/l
Executive summary:

This summary summarises a published paper where the toxicity of a number of materials were assess for acute (96 hours) and chronic (28 days) effects. Only the results of the studies with benzyl acetate are reported in this summary.

The study was conducted according to the protocol described in Benoit DA, et al (1991) Guidelines for conducting early life toxicity tests with Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Ecological Research Series EPA-600/3-91-063, 25 pp

The chronic study was carried out under flow-through test conditions, test species was medaka (Oryzias latipes). Measured concentrations were 0.27, 0.47, 0.9, 1.92 and 4.85 mg/L, corresponding 28 day weights were 30.6 mg in the control and 30.3, 31.2, 31.9, 7.65 and 1.88 mg in the test treatments.

The chronic MATC value was calculated to be 1.33 mg/L. The NOEC value was 0.92 mg/l

Description of key information

This summary summarises a published paper where the toxicity of a number of materials were assessed for acute (96 hours) and chronic (28 days) effects. Only the results of the studies with benzyl acetate are reported in this summary.
The study was conducted according to the protocol described in Benoit DA, et al (1991) Guidelines for conducting early life toxicity tests with Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Ecological Research Series EPA-600/3-91-063, 25 pp
The chronic study were carried out under flow-through test conditions, test species was medaka (Oryzias latipes). Measured concentrations were 0.27, 0.47, 0.9, 1.92 and 4.85 mg/L, corresponding 28 day weights were 30.6 mg in the control and 30.3, 31.2, 31.9, 7.65 and 1.88 mg in the test treatments.
The chronic MATC value was calculated to be 1.33 mg/L. The NOEC value was 0.92 mg/L.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater fish:
0.92 mg/L

Additional information

The chronic study were carried out under flow-through test conditions, test species was medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to benzyl acetate. Measured concentrations were 0.27, 0.47, 0.9, 1.92 and 4.85 mg/L, corresponding 28 day weights were 30.6 mg in the control and 30.3, 31.2, 31.9, 7.65 and 1.88 mg in the test treatments.

The chronic MATC value was calculated to be 1.33 mg/L. The NOEC value was 0.92 mg/L.