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EC number: 227-815-6
CAS number: 5989-54-8
Based on the read-across from an analogue substance, the 96 hour LC50 is
estimated to be 1.1 mg/L.
Based on the read-across from the analogue substance d-limonene. The
96h-LC50 was estimated to be 702 µg/L.
Based on the read-across from the analogue substance d-limonene, the 96
hour LC50 or EC50 of l-limonene to fathead minnow were estimated to be
720 µg/L or 688 µg/L, respectively.
No other information
The acute toxicity of l-limonene to fish was estimated using the
ECOSAR model from EPISUITE 4.1 reported as a valid model by ECHA (R6:
QSAR and grouping of chemicals, May 2008). ECOSAR computes toxicity
based on a linear mathematical relationship between the predicted log
Kow values and the corresponding log of the measured toxicity values
(mmol/L) . l-limonene feld in the applicability domain of this QSAR
model and the calculation was ran using its measured log Kow value of
Results of computer modelling to estimate acute toxicity in a
96-hour freshwater fish study show that the LC50 was 0.845 mg/L.
This ECOSAR prediction of acute toxicity of l-limonene on fish is
adequate for the purpose of risk assessment and classification and
Weight of evidence: Two reliable studies performed with d-limonene on
Pimephales promelas similary to OECD guideline 203 but without GLP
compliance gave comparable results leading to a calculated (geometric
mean) 96 hour-LC50 of 711 µg/L. A non assignable study from a reliable
source (MITI) performed on Oryzias latipes with dipentene, the racemic
dl-limonene, giving a 96h-LC50 of 1.1 mg/L suggested that both
enantiomers have a similar acute toxicity on fish. This hypothesis is
confirmed by the similar value of toxicity estimated by a valid QSAR
model on l-limonene.
reliable studies performed similary to OECD guideline 203 but without
GLP compliance were carried out with two samples of d-limonene from
different sources on the freshwater fish Fathead minnows (Pimephales
promelas) under flow-through conditions. Mortality, behaviour and
morphological aberrations were observed at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The
96h-LC50 were calculated to be 702 (619 -796) µg/L and 720 (618 -839)
µg/L. As no differences in test conditions or test reliability could be
determined and because the results are less than one order of magnitude
apart, they can be harmonised by a geometric mean. Therefore the
96h-LC50 for fish with d-limonene is calculated to be 0.71 mg/L.
result was found in a study from the Japan Ministry (formerly MITI) on
red killifish (Oryzias latipes) with dipentene, the dl-limonene
racemic form, establishing a 96h-LC50 of 1.1 mg/L. This study is not
well documented but its source is reliable and the result suggest that
the two enantiomers have the same level of toxicity on fish. A valid
computer modelling (ECOSAR) was used to assess the toxicity of
l-limonene and its result freshwater fish 96-hour LC50 of 0.845 mg/L
supported the similar acute toxicity of both enantiomers on fish.
studies, the geometric mean of the results from the two standard studies
on d-limonene giving a 96h-LC50
of 0,71 mg/L
is considered as the relevant value to be used for the purpose of risk
assessment and classification and labelling.
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