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EC number: 227-815-6
CAS number: 5989-54-8
Several studies were conducted and validated on daphnia and fish with
d-limonene, the enantiomer of l-limonene. The available EC50 for daphnia
were 0.36 mg/L, 0.924 mg/L, and 0.577 mg/L. The available fish LC50 were
0,702 mg/l and 0.720 mg/L. These studies were conducted in flow through
conditions or static conditions, however always with analytical
monitoring of the tested concentrations. The acute toxicity of the
orange oil orangenöl WMB towards the algaeDesmodesmus subspicatuswas
investigated according to OECD guideline 201 using WAFs, under GLP. The
72h-ECr50 and 72h-NOECr were circa 8 and 2.6 mg/L (measured,
hydrocarbons), respectively. The
composition of orange oil is considered to be > 90% of d-limonene
however no substance purity was reported in this test.
Data were also available on dipentene, containing dl-limonene racemic
form, from the Japan Ministry (formerly MITI). The acute toxicity values
belong to the same range than d-limonene: daphnia: 48h-EC50 = 0.7 mg/L,
fish 96h-LC50 = 1.1 mg/L, algae 72h-ECr50 > 1.6 mg/L. Chronic values
were also measured for daphnia: 21day-EC50= 0.49 mg/L, 21 day-NOEC= 0.27
mg/L and algae 72h-NOECr= 1.6 mg/L. The MITI studies on which we have
little information, were conducted in conditions that were accurate
enough to measure effects at the very low concentrations levels
corresponding to the one measured in the d-limonene validated study. It
reveals that the properties of the substance as regard to degradation or
volatilisation were taken into account and/or the real concentrations
measured. Therefore the studies were evaluated as non assignable but
coming from a reliable source.
software ECOSAR was used to assess the toxicity of l-limonene. The
substance was assessed based on the measured logKow value and the water
solubility of d-limonene because it is expected that these values are
similar for both enantiomers. The results for the acute toxicity were
0.678 and 0.115 mg/L for 48h-LC50 and chronic daphnia, respectively,
0.845 mg/L for 96h-LC50 fish, 0.904 and 0.514 mg/L for 96h-EC50 and
chronic algae, respectively. These results are similar to the
experimental results with dipentene and d-limonene with only lower
toxicity values calculated for algae.
From these results, it can be concluded that the toxicity of the
two enantiomers, d and l limonene, regarding daphnids and fish is
similar and that d-limonene and dipentene can be used as analogue of
l-limonene in a read-across approach to fill data gaps. Among these
studies, the geometric mean 96h-LC50 of 0,71 mg/L for fish, the lowest
48h-EC50 of 0,36 mg/L and the 21d-NOEC= 0.27 mg/L for daphnia are
considered as the relevant values to be used for the purpose of risk
assessment and classification and labelling. Nevertheless, for algae the
lower estimated values, 72h-ErC and 72h-NOErC of 0.904 and 0.514
mg/L,for l-limonene with ECOSAR is prefered as more conservative values
because detailed information on the purity of d-limonene and dipentene
in the available tests is missing
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