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EC number: 227-815-6 | CAS number: 5989-54-8
- Life Cycle description
- Uses advised against
- Endpoint summary
- Appearance / physical state / colour
- Melting point / freezing point
- Boiling point
- Density
- Particle size distribution (Granulometry)
- Vapour pressure
- Partition coefficient
- Water solubility
- Solubility in organic solvents / fat solubility
- Surface tension
- Flash point
- Auto flammability
- Flammability
- Explosiveness
- Oxidising properties
- Oxidation reduction potential
- Stability in organic solvents and identity of relevant degradation products
- Storage stability and reactivity towards container material
- Stability: thermal, sunlight, metals
- pH
- Dissociation constant
- Viscosity
- Additional physico-chemical information
- Additional physico-chemical properties of nanomaterials
- Nanomaterial agglomeration / aggregation
- Nanomaterial crystalline phase
- Nanomaterial crystallite and grain size
- Nanomaterial aspect ratio / shape
- Nanomaterial specific surface area
- Nanomaterial Zeta potential
- Nanomaterial surface chemistry
- Nanomaterial dustiness
- Nanomaterial porosity
- Nanomaterial pour density
- Nanomaterial photocatalytic activity
- Nanomaterial radical formation potential
- Nanomaterial catalytic activity
- Endpoint summary
- Stability
- Biodegradation
- Bioaccumulation
- Transport and distribution
- Environmental data
- Additional information on environmental fate and behaviour
- Ecotoxicological Summary
- Aquatic toxicity
- Endpoint summary
- Short-term toxicity to fish
- Long-term toxicity to fish
- Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
- Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
- Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
- Toxicity to aquatic plants other than algae
- Toxicity to microorganisms
- Endocrine disrupter testing in aquatic vertebrates – in vivo
- Toxicity to other aquatic organisms
- Sediment toxicity
- Terrestrial toxicity
- Biological effects monitoring
- Biotransformation and kinetics
- Additional ecotoxological information
- Toxicological Summary
- Toxicokinetics, metabolism and distribution
- Acute Toxicity
- Irritation / corrosion
- Sensitisation
- Repeated dose toxicity
- Genetic toxicity
- Carcinogenicity
- Toxicity to reproduction
- Specific investigations
- Exposure related observations in humans
- Toxic effects on livestock and pets
- Additional toxicological data
Adsorption / desorption
Administrative data
Link to relevant study record(s)
- Endpoint:
- adsorption / desorption
- Remarks:
- adsorption
- Type of information:
- (Q)SAR
- Adequacy of study:
- weight of evidence
- Study period:
- 2011
- Reliability:
- 2 (reliable with restrictions)
- Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
- other: Use of a valid QSAR, the substance falls within the applicability domain of the (Q)SAR model, the prediction fits for the regulatory purpose, and the information is enough documented.
- Justification for type of information:
- . Relevance of the model
The model KOCWIN v2.00 as part of EPISUITE 4.0 software package (Syracuse Research Corporation, SRC) is reported as a usable valid model by ECHA (R6: QSARs and grouping of chemicals, May 2008). Calculation is performed according to the logKow value methodology.
2. Validation of the model
- Endpoint (OECD Principle 1)
The Endpoint concerned by the KOCWIN v2.00 prediction is the IUCLID endpoint 5.4.1: adsorption/desorption. The predicted variable is Koc, which is the soil/water partition coefficient.
- Algorithm (OECD Principle 2)
Koc calculated from logKow (from Doucette, 2000):
For non-polar compound (no correction factor):
log Koc = 0.8679 Log Kow - 0.0004
(n = 68, r2 = 0.877, std dev = 0.478, avg dev = 0.371)
With correction factors:
log Koc = 0.55313 Log Kow + 0.9251 + ΣPfN
where ΣPfN is the summation of the products of all applicable correction factor coefficients multiplied by the number of times (N) that factor is counted for the structure.
- Applicability domain (OECD Principle 3)
Training set molecular weights: 32.04 – 665.02 g/mol (average 224.4 g/mol)
Validation molecular weights: 73.14 – 504.12 g/mol (average 277.8 g/mol)
l-limonene have a molecular weight in the applicability domain.
- Uncertainty of the prediction (OECD Principle 4)
The following table gives statistical information for the log Kow-based regression: training and validation sets. The statistics pertain to the experimental log Koc and the Log Kow estimated log Koc:
Log Kow Methodology
Training Training Validation
No Corrections with Corrections Data set
number 68 447 150**
r2 corr coef 0.877 0.855 0.778
std deviation 0.478 0.396 0.679
avg deviation 0.371 0.307 0.494
** eight ammonium and metal salt compounds were removed from the Validation dataset
3. Adequacy of result for classification & labelling and/or risk assessment
KOCwin v2.00 estimates are values of Koc (partition coefficient between soil and water), they are therefore adequate for derivation of Koc (endpoint value) and completion of IUCLID endpoint 5.4.1 of adsorption/desorption. - Qualifier:
- according to guideline
- Guideline:
- other: Reach guidance on QSAR - R.6
- Deviations:
- no
- Principles of method if other than guideline:
- Koc was calculated from experimental Log Kow
- GLP compliance:
- no
- Remarks:
- Calculated results
- Type of method:
- other: QSAR
- Media:
- soil
- Radiolabelling:
- no
- Computational methods:
- 1. Relevance of the model
The model KOCWIN v2.00 as part of EPISUITE 4.0 software package (Syracuse Research Corporation, SRC) is reported as a usable valid model by ECHA (R6: QSARs and grouping of chemicals, May 2008). Calculation is performed according to the logKow value methodology.
2. Validation of the model
- Endpoint (OECD Principle 1)
The Endpoint concerned by the KOCWIN v2.00 prediction is the IUCLID endpoint 5.4.1: adsorption/desorption. The predicted variable is Koc, which is the soil/water partition coefficient.
- Algorithm (OECD Principle 2)
Koc calculated from logKow (from Doucette, 2000):
For non-polar compound (no correction factor):
log Koc = 0.8679 Log Kow - 0.0004
(n = 68, r2 = 0.877, std dev = 0.478, avg dev = 0.371)
With correction factors:
log Koc = 0.55313 Log Kow + 0.9251 + ΣPfN
where ΣPfN is the summation of the products of all applicable correction factor coefficients multiplied by the number of times (N) that factor is counted for the structure.
- Applicability domain (OECD Principle 3)
Training set molecular weights: 32.04 – 665.02 g/mol (average 224.4 g/mol)
Validation molecular weights: 73.14 – 504.12 g/mol (average 277.8 g/mol)
l-limonene have a molecular weight in the applicability domain.
- Uncertainty of the prediction (OECD Principle 4)
The following table gives statistical information for the log Kow-based regression: training and validation sets. The statistics pertain to the experimental log Koc and the Log Kow estimated log Koc:
Log Kow Methodology
Training Training Validation
No Corrections with Corrections Data set
number 68 447 150**
r2 corr coef 0.877 0.855 0.778
std deviation 0.478 0.396 0.679
avg deviation 0.371 0.307 0.494
** eight ammonium and metal salt compounds were removed from the Validation dataset
3. Adequacy of result for classification & labelling and/or risk assessment
KOCwin v2.00 estimates are values of Koc (partition coefficient between soil and water), they are therefore adequate for derivation of Koc (endpoint value) and completion of IUCLID endpoint 5.4.1 of adsorption/desorption. - Key result
- Type:
- Koc
- Value:
- 6 324
- Remarks on result:
- other: L/kg
- Transformation products:
- no
- Validity criteria fulfilled:
- yes
- Conclusions:
- The Koc of l-limonene predicted from Log Kow is 6324 L/kg.
- Executive summary:
Koc has been predicted by KOCWIN v2.00 from EPISUITE 4.0 software reported as a usable valid model by ECHA (R6: QSARs and grouping of chemicals, May 2008).
KOCwin v2.00 estimates are values of Koc (partition coefficient between soil and water), they are therefore adequate for derivation of Koc (IUCLID endpoint 5.4.1 of adsorption/desorption) and for the purpose of risk assessment.
Calculation was performed according to the MCI, Molecular Connectivity Index methodology and l-limonene falls in the applicability domain of this QSAR model.
The Koc of l-limonene predicted from the Log Kow of 4.38 is 6324 L/kg.
Referenceopen allclose all
- Endpoint:
- adsorption / desorption
- Remarks:
- adsorption
- Type of information:
- (Q)SAR
- Adequacy of study:
- weight of evidence
- Study period:
- 2011
- Reliability:
- 2 (reliable with restrictions)
- Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
- other: Use of a valid QSAR, the substance falls within the applicability domain of the (Q)SAR model, the prediction fits for the regulatory purpose, and the information is enough documented.
- Justification for type of information:
- 1. Relevance of the model
The model KOCWIN v2.00 as part of EPISUITE 4.0 software package (Syracuse Research Corporation, SRC) is reported as a usable valid model by ECHA (R6: QSARs and grouping of chemicals, May 2008). Calculations are performed according to the methodology MCI, Molecular Connectivity Index.
2. Validation of the model
- Endpoint (OECD Principle 1)
The Endpoint concerned by the KOCWIN v2.00 prediction is the IUCLID endpoint 5.4.1: adsorption/desorption. The predicted variable is Koc, which is the soil/water partition coefficient.
- Algorithm (OECD Principle 2)
The methodology, Molecular Connectivity Index (Meylan et al., 1992), is used in KOCWIN v2.00 model.
For non-polar compound (no correction factor):
log Koc = 0.5213 MCI + 0.60
(n = 69, r2 = 0.967, std dev = 0.247, avg dev = 0.199)
With correction factors:
log Koc = 0.5213 MCI + 0.60 + ΣPfN
where ΣPfN is the summation of the products of all applicable correction factor coefficients multiplied by the number of times (N) that factor is counted for the structure.
- Applicability domain (OECD Principle 3)
Training set molecular weights: 32.04 – 665.02 g/mol (average 224.4 g/mol)
Validation molecular weights: 73.14 – 504.12 g/mol (average 277.8 g/mol)
l-limonene have a molecular weight in the applicability domain.
- Uncertainty of the prediction (OECD Principle 4)
The following table gives statistical information for the MCI (Molecular Connectivity Index, first-order) training and validation Datasets. The statistics pertain to the experimental log Koc and the MCI estimated log Koc:
MCI Methodology
Training Training Validation
No Corrections with Corrections Data set
number 69 447 158
r2 corr coef 0.967 0.900 0.850
std deviation 0.247 0.340 0.583
avg deviation 0.199 0.273 0.459
3. Adequacy of result for classification & labelling and/or risk assessment
KOCwin v2.00 estimates are values of Koc (partition coefficient between soil and water), they are therefore adequate for derivation of Koc (endpoint value) and completion of IUCLID endpoint 5.4.1 of adsorption/desorption. - Qualifier:
- according to guideline
- Guideline:
- other: Reach guidance on QSAR - R.6
- Deviations:
- no
- Principles of method if other than guideline:
- Calculations by Molecular Connectivity Index (MCI)
- GLP compliance:
- no
- Remarks:
- Calculated results
- Type of method:
- other: QSAR
- Media:
- soil
- Radiolabelling:
- no
- Computational methods:
- 1. Relevance of the model
The model KOCWIN v2.00 as part of EPISUITE 4.0 software package (Syracuse Research Corporation, SRC) is reported as a usable valid model by ECHA (R6: QSARs and grouping of chemicals, May 2008). Calculations are performed according to the methodology MCI, Molecular Connectivity Index.
2. Validation of the model
- Endpoint (OECD Principle 1)
The Endpoint concerned by the KOCWIN v2.00 prediction is the IUCLID endpoint 5.4.1: adsorption/desorption. The predicted variable is Koc, which is the soil/water partition coefficient.
- Algorithm (OECD Principle 2)
The methodology, Molecular Connectivity Index (Meylan et al., 1992), is used in KOCWIN v2.00 model.
For non-polar compound (no correction factor):
log Koc = 0.5213 MCI + 0.60
(n = 69, r2 = 0.967, std dev = 0.247, avg dev = 0.199)
With correction factors:
log Koc = 0.5213 MCI + 0.60 + ΣPfN
where ΣPfN is the summation of the products of all applicable correction factor coefficients multiplied by the number of times (N) that factor is counted for the structure.
- Applicability domain (OECD Principle 3)
Training set molecular weights: 32.04 – 665.02 g/mol (average 224.4 g/mol)
Validation molecular weights: 73.14 – 504.12 g/mol (average 277.8 g/mol)
l-limonene have a molecular weight in the applicability domain.
- Uncertainty of the prediction (OECD Principle 4)
The following table gives statistical information for the MCI (Molecular Connectivity Index, first-order) training and validation Datasets. The statistics pertain to the experimental log Koc and the MCI estimated log Koc:
MCI Methodology
Training Training Validation
No Corrections with Corrections Data set
number 69 447 158
r2 corr coef 0.967 0.900 0.850
std deviation 0.247 0.340 0.583
avg deviation 0.199 0.273 0.459
3. Adequacy of result for classification & labelling and/or risk assessment
KOCwin v2.00 estimates are values of Koc (partition coefficient between soil and water), they are therefore adequate for derivation of Koc (endpoint value) and completion of IUCLID endpoint 5.4.1 of adsorption/desorption. - Key result
- Type:
- Koc
- Value:
- 1 120
- Remarks on result:
- other: L/kg
- Transformation products:
- no
- Validity criteria fulfilled:
- yes
- Conclusions:
- Based on MCI calculation, the predicted Koc for l-limonene is 1120 L/kg.
- Executive summary:
Koc has been predicted by KOCWIN v2.00 from EPISUITE 4.0 software reported as a usable valid model by ECHA (R6: QSARs and grouping of chemicals, May 2008).
KOCwin v2.00 estimates are values of Koc (partition coefficient between soil and water), they are therefore adequate for derivation of Koc (endpoint value) and completion of IUCLID endpoint 5.4.1 of adsorption/desorption.
Calculation was performed according to the MCI, Molecular Connectivity Index methodology and l-limonene falls in the applicability domain of this QSAR model.
The Molecular Connectivity Index method predicted a Koc for l-limonene of 1120 L/kg.
- Endpoint:
- adsorption / desorption
- Remarks:
- adsorption
- Type of information:
- (Q)SAR
- Adequacy of study:
- weight of evidence
- Study period:
- 2011
- Reliability:
- 2 (reliable with restrictions)
- Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
- other: Use of a valid QSAR, the substance falls within the applicability domain of the (Q)SAR model, the prediction fits for the regulatory purpose, and the information is enough documented.
- Justification for type of information:
- 1. Relevance of the model
The derivation of Koc from Kow values as described in the TGD (2003) and in EUSES is reported as a usable valid model by ECHA (R6 : QSARs and grouping of chemicals, May 2008).
2. Validation of the model
- Endpoint (OECD Principle 1)
The Endpoint concerned by the Koc calculations with TGD (2003) equations is the IUCLID endpoint 5.4.1: adsorption/desorption. The predicted variable is Koc, which is the soil/water partition coefficient.
- Algorithm (OECD Principle 2)
The equations defined by Sabljic and Güsten (1995) for 19 different chemical classes of compounds. A full list of the equations for the 19 chemical classes can be found in the EU Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment Part III, Chapter 4, Section 4.3 (pp 24 – 27).
- Applicability domain (OECD Principle 3)
The applicability domain of the sorption models developed by Sabljic and Güsten (1995) depends on the considered chemical class, and is based on logKow range. The applicability domain of TGD (2003) equations for Koc calculations from Kow, for the various defined chemical classes can be found in the EU Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment Part III, Chapter 4, Section 4.3 (pp 24 – 27).
The chemical class “predominantly hydrophobics” is defined as compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen and halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) atoms, “nonhydrophobic chemicals” being all chemicals that cannot be classified as predominantly hydrophobics. Fourteen class-specific QSAR models were produced for all nonhydrophobic classes of chemicals, in order to give more appropriate equations.
l-limonene is not inorganic, nor a salt, nor a surfactant, nor an organometallic compound, or nor an ionized chemical. l-limonene is not hydrophobic. As non-hydrophobic, its chemical class should be clearly defined if possible. l-limonene can be defined as “Nonhydrophobics”, as it do not fit in any other chemical domain.
It has a logKow (4.38) in the validity domain of the model, allowing the use of the following equation: logKoc = 0.52 logKow + 1.02.
Thus the applicability of the equations defined by Sabljic and Güsten (1995) for l-limonene is confirmed.
- Uncertainty of the prediction (OECD Principle 4)
Uncertainty of the predictions is given in the EU Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment Part III, Chapter 4, Section 4.3,Table 4, p.26 as:
n=390,r2=0.63,s.e.=0.56.
3. Adequacy of result for classification & labelling and/or risk assessment
The described equations aim at calculating Koc values (partition coefficient between soil and water), they are therefore adequate for derivation of Koc (endpoint value) and completion of endpoint 5.4.1 of IUCLID dossier. - Qualifier:
- according to guideline
- Guideline:
- other: Reach guidance on QSAR - R.6
- Deviations:
- no
- Principles of method if other than guideline:
- Koc was calculated from experimental Log Kow according to equations from TGD 2003.
- GLP compliance:
- no
- Remarks:
- Calculated results
- Type of method:
- other: QSAR
- Media:
- soil
- Radiolabelling:
- no
- Computational methods:
- 1. Relevance of the model
The derivation of Koc from Kow values as described in the TGD (2003) and in EUSES is reported as a usable valid model by ECHA (R6 : QSARs and grouping of chemicals, May 2008).
2. Validation of the model
- Endpoint (OECD Principle 1)
The Endpoint concerned by the Koc calculations with TGD (2003) equations is the IUCLID endpoint 5.4.1: adsorption/desorption. The predicted variable is Koc, which is the soil/water partition coefficient.
- Algorithm (OECD Principle 2)
The equations defined by Sabljic and Güsten (1995) for 19 different chemical classes of compounds. A full list of the equations for the 19 chemical classes can be found in the EU Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment Part III, Chapter 4, Section 4.3 (pp 24 – 27).
- Applicability domain (OECD Principle 3)
The applicability domain of the sorption models developed by Sabljic and Güsten (1995) depends on the considered chemical class, and is based on logKow range. The applicability domain of TGD (2003) equations for Koc calculations from Kow, for the various defined chemical classes can be found in the EU Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment Part III, Chapter 4, Section 4.3 (pp 24 – 27).
The chemical class “predominantly hydrophobics” is defined as compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen and halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) atoms, “nonhydrophobic chemicals” being all chemicals that cannot be classified as predominantly hydrophobics. Fourteen class-specific QSAR models were produced for all nonhydrophobic classes of chemicals, in order to give more appropriate equations.
l-limonene is not inorganic, nor a salt, nor a surfactant, nor an organometallic compound, or nor an ionized chemical. l-limonene is not hydrophobic. As non-hydrophobic, its chemical class should be clearly defined if possible. l-limonene can be defined as “Nonhydrophobics”, as it do not fit in any other chemical domain.
It has a logKow (4.38) in the validity domain of the model, allowing the use of the following equation: logKoc = 0.52 logKow + 1.02.
Thus the applicability of the equations defined by Sabljic and Güsten (1995) for l-limonene is confirmed.
- Uncertainty of the prediction (OECD Principle 4)
Uncertainty of the predictions is given in the EU Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment Part III, Chapter 4, Section 4.3,Table 4, p.26 as:
n=390,r2=0.63,s.e.=0.56.
3. Adequacy of result for classification & labelling and/or risk assessment
The described equations aim at calculating Koc values (partition coefficient between soil and water), they are therefore adequate for derivation of Koc (endpoint value) and completion of endpoint 5.4.1 of IUCLID dossier. - Key result
- Type:
- Koc
- Value:
- 1 984
- Remarks on result:
- other: L/kg
- Transformation products:
- no
- Validity criteria fulfilled:
- yes
- Conclusions:
- The Koc of l-limonene predicted from experimental Log Kow of 4.38 and following equations of Sabljic and Güsten (1995) for non hydrophobic substances is 1984 L/kg.
- Executive summary:
Koc has been predicted by calculations from experimental Log Kow and using equations of Sabljic and Güsten (1995) reported as a usable valid model by ECHA (R6: QSARs and grouping of chemicals, May 2008).
The described equations aim at calculating Koc values (partition coefficient between soil and water), they are therefore adequate for derivation of Koc (endpoint value) and completion of endpoint 5.4.1 of IUCLID dossier.
Calculation was performed according to the equation for non hydrophobic substances and l-limonene falls in the applicability domain of this QSAR model.
The Koc of l-limonene predicted from the Log Kow of 4.38 is 1984 L/kg.
Description of key information
Weight of evidence: The geometric mean of the Koc predicted values by valid QSARs is considered for chemical safety assessment = 2413 L/kg.
Key value for chemical safety assessment
- Koc at 20 °C:
- 2 413
Additional information
ECHA Guidance (chapter R.7.a, paragraph R.7.1.15) recommends calculating the Koc endpoint value as the geometric mean of results obtained by means of QSARs. Koc has been estimated by 3 valid QSAR methods: 1. with KOCWIN from EPISUITE 4.0 using CAS number as input and the Molecular Connectivity Method (MCI) = 1120 L/kg 2. with KOCWIN from EPISUITE 4.0 using experimental Log Kow and CAS number as input= 6324 L/kg 3. from experimental Log Kow with equation of Sabljic and Güsten (1995) for non hydrophobic susbtances as reported in TGD (2003) = 1984 L/kg
The geometric mean value 2413 L/kg is considered as the endpoint defining the substance for adsorption and is used as input parameter for Environmental Risk Assessment.
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