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Environmental fate & pathways

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The transport evaluation for BPS is based on located experimental and estimated physical and chemical properties.

Based on the Level III fugacity models incorporating the located experimental property data, BPS is expected to partition primarily to soil. It is expected to exist in both neutral and anionic forms at environmentally relevant pH, based on its measured pKa. The neutral form of BPS is expected to have slight mobility in soil based on its estimated Koc. The anionic form may be more mobile, as anions do not bind as strongly to organic carbon and clay due to their enhanced water solubility. However, leaching of BPS through soil to groundwater is not expected to be an important transport mechanism.

Estimated volatilization half-lives indicate that it will be non volatile from surface water.

In the atmosphere, BPS is expected to exist in the particulate phase, based on its estimated vapour pressure. Particulates will be removed from air by wet or dry deposition.1

Distribution in the environment of the salified form of phenol sulphonic acid (APS) was evaluated with Mackay Level III and is expected to partition primarily to soil (83%).2

As a conclusion, the intermediate DCB 58% is expected to partition primarily to soil.


1EPA, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Bisphenol A alternatives in thermal paper, Final Report, January 2014;

2Mackay Model, Level III, EPI SUITE, by EPA