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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Reliable study results are available from 20 short-term tests studies with different aquatic invertebrate species. Nine tests conducted with Daphnia magna or Ceriodaphnia followed the standard test approach of international guidelines with 48 hour exposure. The EC50 values were in the range of 3.1 and 20 mg/L. The most sensitive endpoint was the EC50 of 3.1 mg/L, based on measured initial concentrations, obtained in a 48-h acute toxicity study with Ceriodaphnia dubia under static conditions (Oris et al. 1991).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
3.1 mg/L

Additional information

Data were taken from phenol dossier - read across appreach was chosen because the content of phenol in the registered substance could be up to 50% (w/w).

The data on short term toxicity of phenol on aquatic invertebrates is presented in EU RAR (2006) in Section 3.2.1 (Aquatic compartment (incl. Sediment), page 36ff). It is stated that in addition to the tests with crustaceans there are additional tests with mussels, snails, worms and insects. Most effect values found for these species are much higher (mussels: 59-1000 mg/L, snails: 51-580 mg/l, worms: 32-1080 mg/L, insects: 7-1800 mg/L) than the effect values for daphnids. The most sensitive species to phenol seem to be Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna. The lowest effect value of 3.1 mg/L was found by Oris et al. (1991) for C. dubia. Cowgill et al. (1985) and Cowgill & Milazzo (1991) found EC50 values for the same species ranging from 4.3 to 20 mg/L. For D. magna 48-hour effect values are in the range from 4.2 to 13 mg/l. For the further risk assessment the 48-hour LC50 of 3.1 mg/l is used as effect value for short-term toxicity of phenol to invertebrates.

Reliable study results are available from 20 short-term tests studies with different aquatic invertebrate species. Nine tests conducted with Daphnia magna or Ceriodaphnia followed the standard test approach of international guidelines with 48 hour exposure. The EC50 values were in the range of 3.1 and 20 mg/L. The tests were conducted under flow-through, semi-static or static conditions and the exposure concentrations were analytically verified in the flow-through test of Holcombe et al. (1987) and in the static tests of Oris et al. (1991) and Lewis et al. (1983). Like Colgan et al. (1982), Lewis et al. (1983) demonstrated the stability of phenol under static conditions (48 h period).

The most sensitive endpoint was the EC50 of 3.1 mg/L, based on measured initial concentrations, obtained in a 48-h acute toxicity study with Ceriodaphnia dubia under static conditions (Oris et al., 1991).