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Physical & Chemical properties

Explosiveness

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Reference
Endpoint:
explosiveness
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Not reported
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP unknown, guideline, available as unpublished report, acceptable with restrictions
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: see below
Deviations:
not specified
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Mechanical Sensitiveness: Drop-Ball Impact Test (1); Julius Peters Fallhammer (2); Impacted Friction (Mallet Friction Test) (3); Koenen Friction Machine (2): Thermal Sensitivity: Ease of Ignition (Bickford Fuse) Test (4); Ad Hoc Ignitability Tests ; EFL Time/Pressure Test (5); Hot Stage Microscopy; Hot Stage Microscopy "as received" material; Differential scanning Calorimetry (DSC); Detonation Stimulus: Ballistic Mortar MKIIId (heavy confinement) (6)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Key result
Test series:
other: Drop ball impact test
Method:
other: Drop ball impact test
Parameter:
other: 2 ignitions noted in 30 separate trials, material less sensitive to impact than meta-dinitrobenzene
Result:
other: 2 ignitions noted in 30 separate trials, material less sensitive to impact than meta-dinitrobenzene
Remarks on result:
other: 2 ignitions noted in 30 separate trials, material less sensitive to impact than meta-dinitrobenzene
Key result
Test series:
other: Julius Peters Fallhammer
Method:
other: Julius Peters Fallhammer
Parameter:
other: 6 ignitions in 6 trials observed. Material more sensitive to impact than meta-dinitrobenzene
Result:
other: 6 ignitions in 6 trials observed. Material more sensitive to impact than meta-dinitrobenzene
Remarks on result:
other: 6 ignitions in 6 trials observed. Material more sensitive to impact than meta-dinitrobenzene
Key result
Test series:
other: Impacted Friction (Mallet Friction Test)
Method:
other: Impacted Friction (Mallet Friction Test)
Parameter:
other: No ignitions occurred in 100 blows. Ignitions observed with 680g steel mallet on yorkstone anvil but difficult to state whether ignitions occurred with the steel mallet on a steel anvil.
Result:
other: No ignitions occurred in 100 blows. Ignitions observed with 680g steel mallet on yorkstone anvil but difficult to state whether ignitions occurred with the steel mallet on a steel anvil.
Remarks on result:
other: Material regarded as being difficult to ignite by impacted friction and less friction sensitive than its platinum analogue
Key result
Test series:
other: Koenen Friction Machine
Method:
other: Koenen Friction Machine
Parameter:
other: Decomposition observed in 6 trials at max load (36kg)
Result:
other: Decomposition observed in 6 trials at max load (36kg)
Remarks on result:
other: Decomposition observed in 6 trials at max load (36kg)
Key result
Test series:
other: Ease of Ignition (Bickford Fuse) Test
Method:
other: Ease of Ignition (Bickford Fuse) Test
Parameter:
other: No ignition observed. Surface showed signs of local decomposition
Result:
other: No ignition observed. Surface showed signs of local decomposition
Remarks on result:
other: No ignition observed. Surface showed signs of local decomposition
Key result
Test series:
other: Ad Hoc Ignitability Tests
Method:
other: Ad Hoc Ignitability Tests
Parameter:
other: Sample gradually decomposed
Result:
other: Sample gradually decomposed
Remarks on result:
other: Sample gradually decomposed
Key result
Test series:
other: EFL Time/Pressure Test
Method:
other: EFL Time/Pressure Test
Parameter:
other: 3 trials, following times to rise from pressure levels stated noted
Result:
other: 0 -100 psi (1) 95.6 (2) 84.5 and (3) 120 milliseconds; 100 -300 psi (1) 45.8 (2) 33.5 (3) 40.5 milliseconds
Remarks on result:
other: Material is not regarded as having explosive properties
Key result
Test series:
other: Hot Stage Microscopy
Method:
other: Hot Stage Microscopy
Parameter:
other: No ignition observed up to 300 °C
Result:
other: No ignition observed up to 300 °C
Remarks on result:
other: No ignition observed up to 300 °C
Key result
Test series:
other: Hot Stage Microscopy "as received" material
Method:
other: Hot Stage Microscopy "as received" material
Parameter:
other: at 5 °C/minute sample discoloured at 170 °C and appeared to begin melting at 217 °C
Result:
other: at 5 °C/minute sample discoloured at 170 °C and appeared to begin melting at 217 °C
Remarks on result:
other: at 5 °C/minute sample discoloured at 170 °C and appeared to begin melting at 217 °C
Key result
Test series:
other: Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Method:
other: Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Parameter:
other: At a heating rate of 10 °C/minute, 3 exothermic peaks observed with transition temperatures of 230.5 °C, 249.3 °C and 264 °C. Respective mean transition energies were 201, 185 and 85 cal/g.
Result:
other: At a heating rate of 10 °C/minute, 3 exothermic peaks observed with transition temperatures of 230.5 °C, 249.3 °C and 264 °C. Respective mean transition energies were 201, 185 and 85 cal/g.
Remarks on result:
other: Decomposition not first order and overall decomposition energy was 471 cal/g (458 KJ/mole; 1.97 KJ/g)
Key result
Test series:
other: Ballistic Mortar MKIIId (heavy confinement)
Method:
other: Ballistic Mortar MKIIId (heavy confinement)
Parameter:
other: No duplicate firing due to limited amount of material available. Material is powerful in energy release under these conditions being of the same order as gunpowder (G40).
Result:
other: No duplicate firing due to limited amount of material available. Material is powerful in energy release under these conditions being of the same order as gunpowder (G40).
Remarks on result:
other: No duplicate firing due to limited amount of material available. Material is powerful in energy release under these conditions being of the same order as gunpowder (G40).
  • Drop ball impact test: 2 ignitions noted in 30 separate trials, material less sensitive to impact than meta-dinitrobenzene
  • Julius Peters Fallhammer: 6 ignitions in 6 trials observed. Material more sensitive to impact than meta-dinitrobenzene
  • Impacted Friction (Mallet Friction Test); No ignitions occurred in 100 blows. Ignitions observed with 680g steel mallet on yorkstone anvil but difficult to state whether ignitions occurred with the steel mallet on a steel anvil. Material regarded as being difficult to ignite by impacted friction and less friction sensitive than its platinum analogue
  • Koenen Friction Machine: Decomposition observed in 6 trials at max load (36kg)
  • Ease of Ignition (Bickford Fuse) Test: No ignition observed. Surface showed signs of local decomposition
  • Ad Hoc Ignitability Tests: Sample gradually decomposed
  • EFL Time/Pressure Test: 3 trials, following times to rise from pressure levels stated noted: 0 -100 psi (1) 95.6 (2) 84.5 and (3) 120 milliseconds; 100 -300 psi (1) 45.8 (2) 33.5 (3) 40.5 milliseconds. Material is not regarded as having explosive properties
  • Hot Stage Microscopy: No ignition observed up to 300 °C
  • Hot Stage Microscopy "as received" material: at 5 °C/minute sample discoloured at 170 °C and appeared to begin melting at 217 °C
  • Differential Scanning Calorimetry: At a heating rate of 10 °C/minute, 3 exothermic peaks observed with transition temperatures of 230.5 °C, 249.3 °C and 264 °C. Respective mean transition energies were 201, 185 and 85 cal/g. Decomposition not first order and overall decomposition energy was 471 cal/g (458 KJ/mole; 1.97 KJ/g)
  • Ballistic Mortar MKIIId (heavy confinement); No duplicate firing due to limited amount of material available. Material is powerful in energy release under these conditions being of the same order as gunpowder (G40).
Interpretation of results:
explosive
Remarks:
Migrated information
Conclusions:
The sample supplied of palladium diamminedinitrite, when dry, appears not to be readily ignitable, is marginally more sensitive to impact than meta-dinitrobenzene, and can be ignited by impacted friction with steel on stone. The energy released in the ballistic mortar was of the same order as that from gunpowder. As measured by the Time/Pressure apparatus the deflagration rate, once ignition under confinement had begun, was just greater than that of typical deflagrating explosives. Taking this into account, along with the energy release that occurred in the ballistic mortar MkIIId and in the DSC apparatus, explosive effects can be expected should the material be ignited whilst confined. Effects will depend on the quantity of material and the degree of confinement.
Executive summary:

This is a guideline study and is considered suitable for use as the key study for this endpoint. Explosive effects can be expected should palladium diamminedinitrite be ignited whilst confined. Effects will depend on the quantity of material and the degree of confinement.

Description of key information

Explosive effects can be expected should palladium diamminedinitrite be ignited whilst confined.  Effects will depend on the quantity of material and the degree of confinement. Based on structural similarity, the data for palladium diamminedinitrite is read across to tetraammine palladium (II) nitrate. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Health and Safety Executive Research and Laboratory Services (1982) is a study which provides data on the explosive properties testing of palladium diamminedinitrite.

As palladium diamminedinitrie and tetraamminepalladium (II) nitrate are very similar in structure it was considered appropriate to read across the data. The study is considered adequate for use as the key study for this endpoint. Explosive effects can be expected should palladium diamminedinitrite be ignited whilst confined. Effects will depend on the quantity of material and the degree of confinement. Similar effects are expected for tetraamminepalladium (II) nitrate.

The Degussa (1985) study predates GLP and does not state if a guideline has been used. The study has limitations in design and/or reporting but is considered adequate for use as supporting study.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on expert judgement, tetraammminepalladium (II) nitrate is classified as Self-reactive Type A (H240), and EUH044: Risk of explosion if heated under confinement should be assigned for labelling purposes.