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Toxicological information

Toxicity to reproduction

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
one-generation reproductive toxicity
Remarks:
based on generations indicated in Effect levels (migrated information)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well documented and reported study fully adequate for assessment. The study was conducted according to an internationally accepted technical guideline and in compliance with GLP in a recognized contract research organization.
Cross-referenceopen allclose all
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to other study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2012
Report Date:
2012

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Version / remarks:
of 1996
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Sprague Dawley rats, strain: Crl:CD(SD) with appropriate range of bodyweight at study start.
- Source: Charles River (UK) Ltd.
- Age at treatment start: ca. 72 days.
- Weight at treatment start: Males: minimum 325 g, maximum 387 g,
Females: minimum 229 g, maximum 280 g.
- Housing Inside a barriered rodent facility:
all animals pre-pairing + toxicity subgroups: In groups up to 5 by sex in solid floor polycarbonate cages.
during pairing (1 male+1 female/cage): In RB3 modified polypropylene cages with stainless steel grid-floor over absorbent paper-lined trays.
males after pairing: In groups up to 5 in solid floor polycarbonate cages.
females during gestation and lactation: Females housed individually (+litter) in solid floor polycarbonate cages.
- Bedding material (in solid floor cages): Wood based bedding, sterilised by autoclaving before use.
- Cage enrichment: Aspen chew block + plastic shelter (except during pairing or post Gestation Day 20).
- Diet (ad libitum): Standard rodent diet (SDS VRF1 Certified) without antibiotic, chemotherapeutic or prophylactic agent.
- Fasting (diet withheld): Main phase males and Toxicity phase females overnight before blood sampling for clinical pathology.
- Water (ad libitum): Potable drinking water from the public supply.
- Acclimation period: 7 days before treatment start, under laboratory conditions.

Routine analysis of the batch of diet used and water, chew blocks and bedding material did not provide evidence of contamination that might have prejudiced the study.

IN-LIFE DATES:
- Duration of test, males & toxicity phase females: Five weeks
Duration of test, main phase females (i.e. reproductive subgroup): From 14 days prior to pairing to day 7 of lactation.
Duration of test, offspring: From birth to day 7 of lactation.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

Air conditioned room kept at positve pressure without re-circulation of the filtered fresh air supplied to the room.
Controlled environment, environmental conditions were set at:
- Temperature (°C): 22 ± 3°C
- Relative Humidity (%): 40 to 70%
- Photoperiod (artificial lighting): 12 hrs day / 12 hrs night
- Rate of air exchange: At least 15 changes/h
Deviations from the target ranges for temperature and relative humidity were not evident.

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
propylene glycol
Details on exposure:
Treatment of parental animals by oral gavage administration. Test substance was not directly administered to F1 animals.

- Concentration in vehicle: The concentration of the test material in vehicle varied between dose groups thus allowing constant dosage volume in terms of mL/kg bw/day.
- Amount (dose volume by gavage): 5 mL/kg bw/day.
Actual dose volumes were calculated at about weekly or shorter intervals accounting for the latest bodyweight.

- For concentrations of test material in vehicle at different dose levels, see Table 1 in "Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables"

- Justification for choice of vehicle:
The suitability of propylene glycol as a vehicle was established during the 7-day range-finding study:
Endpoint study record "7.5.1 Repeated dose toxicity: oral - 7d_range-finding_gavage_HLS_GAH0116".
In addition, in the present main study, concentrations of dose formulations were chemically analysed.


Details on mating procedure:
- Male/female ratio per cage: 1/1
- Length of cohabitation: At the most 12 days, until proof of pregnancy was confirmed. 
- Proof of successful mating: Formation of at least one copulation plug and a sperm positive vaginal smear.
The day this was found was referred to as day 0 of gestation.
(During cohabitation, females were checked every morning for pregnancy).

Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
- Chemical analysis of test material formulations by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS).
- Mean concentrations (verified for first and last treatment week) of the test material formulations were confirmed at each dose level.
Chemical analysis confirmed that the mean concentrations of WS400123 in prepared formulations were 97.0% to 112.9% of the corresponding
nominal concentration, thus confirming acceptable accuracy of formulation for dosing of the animals.
- Homogeneity and stability of test material formulations at 2 and 200 mg/L and at storage and handling conditions similar to those adopted for dosing of the animals were confirmed.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
- Treatment period, males & toxicity phase females: Daily, for five consecutive weeks, in males commencing 14 days prior to pairing
- Treatment period, main phase females (i.e. reproductive subgroup): 43 to 47 days (from 14 days prior to pairing to day 6 of lactation)
- Offspring were not dosed
Frequency of treatment:
Daily, 7 days/week (during parturition, dosing omitted as appropriate)
Details on study schedule:
- Age at mating of the mated animals in the study: 12 to 14 weeks
Doses / concentrations
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0 (vehicle control), 100, 300, 1000 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Toxicity phase animals: */ 5 females
Main phase animals (i.e. reproductive subgroups): 10 males / 10 females
*Explanatory note by the notifier:
Examinations assigned to the toxicity phase females to meet the requirements of a 28-day repeat dose oral toxicity study were also assigned to 5 (for some examinations to 10) main phase males per dose group. Therefore, these 5 main phase males per dose group are called also "toxicity subgroup" in the present robust study summary for clarification. After pairing with main phase females, all males were killed at the same time (Week 6).
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
This study was conducted to examine both repeated dose toxicity and  reproductive/developmental toxicity as an OECD screening combined study
(OECD 422 test guideline).  Therefore, animals initially entering the study were divided into toxicity subgroup animals (toxicity phase) and reproductive subgroup animals (main phase), whereby 5 of the 10 F0 males (used for pairing) per dose group formed the toxicity male subgroups.

Dose selection was based on the results of a 7-day preliminary oral toxicity study in the rat in which dose levels of 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg/day did not have any overt treatment-related effects on young adult animals (females nulliparous and non-pregnant).
Positive control:
Not included in the study.

Examinations

Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
Clinical observations performed and frequency:
- Clinical signs : At least twice a day (before and after administration)
- Detailed physical examination
and arena observations: Before treatment start and at least once a treatment week (except 1 or 2 females taking 5 to 12 days for pairing).
- Functional Observation Battery: During treatment week 5 (before dosing) on all toxicity subgroup animals (5 parental males/group inclusively)*.
- Body weight, all males: About weekly throughout the study.
Body weight, Toxicity Females: About weekly throughout the study.
Body weight, Repro. Females: Weekly for pre-pairing period; on gestation days 0, 6, 13, 20; on lactation days 1, 4 & 7.
- Food consumption, all males: Weekly for pre-pairing period and for the period after mating.
Food cons., Toxicity Females: About weekly throughout the study.
Food cons., Repro. Females: Weekly for pre-pairing period, during gestation for days 0-6, 6-13, 13-20, during lactation for days 1-4 & 4-7.
- Hematology: During treatment week 5 after functional observation battery*
- Blood (plasma) chemistry: During treatment week 5 after functional observation battery*

* Examinations confined to toxicity subgroup animals are marked above with an asterisk*
and are detailed in the separate endpoint study record "7.5.1 Repeated dose toxicity: oral - Repeat dose tox combined_gavage_rat_HLS_GAH0117"

Explanatory note
This study was conducted to examine both repeated dose toxicity and  reproductive/developmental toxicity as an OECD screening combined study
(OECD 422 test guideline).  Therefore, animals initially entering the study were divided into toxicity subgroup animals (toxicity phase) and reproductive subgroup animals (main phase), whereby 5 of the 10 F0 males (used for pairing) per dose group formed the toxicity male subgroups.
Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
Frequency of vaginal oestrus was determined by examination of vaginal smears taken daily from all main phase (i.e. reproductive subgroup) females from the beginning of the treatment period to the day of confirmed copulation.
- Regular: All observed cycles of 4 or 5 days
- Irregular: At least one cycle of 2, 3 or 6 to 10 days
- Acyclic: At least 10 days without oestrus
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
Parameters examined in male parental animals:
- testis weight,
- epididymis weight
- detailed qualitative histopathology examination of the testes taking into account the tubular stages of the spermatogenic cycle. This was to identify treatment related effects such as missing germ cell layers or types, retained spermatids, multinucleate or apoptotic germ cells and sloughing of spermatogenic cells in the lumen. Any cell- or stage-specificity of testicular findings was noted.
Litter observations:
STANDARDISATION OF LITTERS: Not performed. The study ended on Lactation Day 7.

LITTER PARAMETERS EXAMINED
- From Day 20 post copulation 3 times a day checks for evidence of parturition, any difficulties and numbers of live and dead offspring.
- Total litter size on day 1 of age and mortality/live litter size on each day until 7 days after littering.
- Sex ratio expressed as percentage males and calculated for total offspring on Day 1 and for live offspring on Days 1 & 7
(No. of male pups in litter/No. of offspring in litter) x 100
- Gestation index (No. of live litters born on day 0/No. of living pregnant females) x 100
- Clinical signs, recorded daily
- Body weight of live pups (on days 1, 4 and 7 after littering) and weight change from Days 1-4, 4-7 and 1-7.



Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes, see below
WEIGHING OF ORGANS: Yes, see below
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes, see below

Terminal sacrifice
- all males (F0) and toxicity subgr. females: Killed in Week 6, after completion of the Treatment Week 5 investigations.
- reproductive subgr. females & offspring: Killed on Day 7 post partum.
(1 control & 1 mid dose female were killed on the respective Day 25 after mating, as they had failed to litter)
(1 mid dose female was found dead on Treatment Day 8 due to an intubation error)
(1 high dose female was found dead on Gestation Day 6 due to an intubation error)

Gross pathology:
- adult/parental animals: Full macroscopic examination.

Organs Weights:
- toxicity subgroups: Adrenals, brain, epididymides, heart, kidneys, liver, ovaries, prostate, seminal vesicles with coagulation
gland, spleen, testes, thymus, uterus with cervix & oviducts.
- dams: Ovaries

Histopathology:
- toxicity subgroups*: The following organs were microscopically observed for the control and 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups:
Brain, eyes, pituitary gland, thyroid with parathyroids, heart, thymus, liver, spleen, adrenals, kidneys, testes,
epididymides, ovaries, lung, trachea, oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, rectum, colon, Peyer's patch, lymph node (axillary, mesenteric), urinary bladder, uterus (with cervix & oviducts), vagina,
spinal cord, sciatic nerve, skeletal muscle, sternum with marrow, seminal vesicle & coagulation gland, prostate.
In addition, any gross lesions for all adult animals from all dose groups were examined by light microscopy.

* Histopathology examination only on control & high dose groups, 5 males and 5 females per group

- reproductive subgroups All above organs/tissues from premature deaths (1 mid dose & 1 high dose females) and any gross lesions from all adult animals from all dose groups were examined by light microscopy.
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
Pup survivors were killed on Day 7 post partum and had a careful external macroscopic examination for gross abnormalities.

Externally abnormal offspring and premature deaths had an internal macroscopic examination including assessment of the presence of milk in the stomach, where possible. (Missing or grossly autolysed or cannibalised offspring could not be examined).
Statistics:
As detailed in Endpoint study record "7.5.1 Repeated dose toxicity: oral - Repeat dose tox combined_gavage_rat_HLS_GAH0117"
Reproductive indices:
- Pre-coital interval (pairing days until detection of mating)
- No. of animals mating (evidence of successful copulation, i.e. at least one copulation plug or a sperm positive vaginal smear)
- No. of animals achieving pregnancy
- Percentage mating (No. of animals mating/No. of animals paired) x 100
- Fertility index (No. of animals achieving pregnancy/ No. or animals paired) x 100
- Conception rate (No. of animals achieving pregnancy/No. of animals mated) x 100
- Gestation length (time elapsing between detection of mating and commencement of parturition)
- No. of living pregnant females
- For further reproductive parameters, see also the above section "Litter observations" and section "Offspring viability indices" below.
Offspring viability indices:
- Post-implantation survival index  (Total no. of pups born/Total no. of uterine implantation sites) x 100
- Live birth index (No. of live pups on Day 1 after littering/Total no. of pups born) x 100
- Viability index (No. of live pups on Day 4 after littering /No. of live pups on Day 1 after littering) x 100
- Lactation index (No. of live pups on Day 7 after littering /No. of live pups on Day 1 after littering) x 100
- For further parameters indicative of the viability of the offspring, see also the above section "Litter observations"

Results and discussion

Results: P0 (first parental animals)

General toxicity (P0)

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
attributable to treatment with the test material
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
attributable to treatment with the test material
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
attributable to treatment with the test material
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
tissues from toxicity phase females, some parental males, the 2 decedent parental females & gross lesions histopathologically examined
Other effects:
not examined

Reproductive function / performance (P0)

Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
no effects observed
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
no effects observed
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed

Details on results (P0)

CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
There were no premature deaths, clinical signs or adverse effects on neurobehaviour attributable to treatment with the test material. One mid dose female and one high dose female of the reproductive subgroups were found dead following intubation errors. One control and one mid dose females were killed on the respective Day 25 after evidence of mating, because they had failed to litter.

BODYWEIGHT, WEIGHT GAIN AND FOOD CONSUMPTION
Bodyweight and food consumption were unaffected by treatment with WS400123 in treated males and nulliparous, nonpregnant females. In dams receiving 1000 mg/kg bw/day, mean bodyweight gain was slightly lower than in concurrent controls during Lactation Days 4-7, but did not differ statistically significantly from controls overall during Lactation Days 1-7 and therefore was considered to represent normal biological variation.

REPRODUCTIVE ENDPOINTS
Oestrous cycles, pre-coital interval, mating performance, fertility, gestation length, gestation index and litter size were not affected by treatment.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
Macroscopic findings attributable to treatment with the test material were not evident. The numbers of uterine implantation sites in main phase females recorded on Lactation Day 7 were unaffected by treatment with WS400123.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
Toxicologically significant effects on organ weights were not evident in males and nulliparous females following 5 treatment weeks, and ovary weights were unaffected by treatment with the test material in dams on Lactation Day 7. In addition, there were no histopathological correlates to any minor deviations in organ weights from concurrent controls.

HISTOPATHOLOGY
Microscopic pathology findings attributable to treatment with the test material were not evident in main phase males and toxicity subgroup females (nulliparous and non-pregnant) after five weeks of treatment. In addition, evaluation of the seminiferous testicular tubules regarding their stage in the spermatogenic cycle and regarding the integrity of the various cell types present within the different stages did not reveal any cell or stage abnormalities. Main phase females (reproductive subgroup) killed on Lactation Day 7 were not histopathologically examined. The two premature deaths (1 mid dose & 1 high dose females macroscopically and microscopically examined) were attributed to trauma during dose administration (intubation error), rather than to an adverse effect of the test material itself.

Effect levels (P0)

Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: see 'Remark'

Results: F1 generation

General toxicity (F1)

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality / viability:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
on bodyweight or bodyweight gain to Day 7, the day of scheduled sacrifice of the pups.
Sexual maturation:
not specified
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not specified
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
disclosed by careful external macroscopic examination of all pups surviving to Day 7 and by necropsy of externally abnormal pups and decedents
Histopathological findings:
not examined

Details on results (F1)

There was no indication of any effect of parental treatment with WS400123 on litter size and survival, clinical condition, sex ratio, bodyweight, bodyweight gain or development of the offspring until Lactation Day 7.

Effect levels (F1)

Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: NOEL = highest dose tested. Offspring development up to Day 7 of age.

Overall reproductive toxicity

Reproductive effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion