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EC number: 215-691-6
CAS number: 1344-28-1
Aluminium, aluminium powders and aluminium oxide are non hazardous
(not classified for the environment). Aluminum (Al) is the most commonly
occurring metallic element, comprising eight percent of the earth's
crust (Press and Siever, 1974) and is therefore found in great abundance
in both the terrestrial and sediment environments. Concentrations of
3-8% (30,000-80,000 ppm) are not uncommon. The relative contributions
of anthropogenic aluminium to the existing natural pools of aluminium in
soils and sediments is very small and therefore not relevant either in
terms of added amounts or in terms of toxicity. Based on these exposure
considerations soil testing is not warranted. More information about
exposure based waiving for aluminium in soil and sediments can be found
in attached document (White paper on exposure based waiving for Fe and
Al in soils and sediments final 15-03-2010. pdf).
To place a proper perspective on the assessment of aluminium in
soil, the Executive Summary of the USEPA EcoSSL (Ecological Soil
Screening Level) assessment for aluminium is presented here.
"Aluminium (Al) is the most commonly occurring metallic element,
comprising eight percent of the earth's crust (Press and Siever, 1974).
It is a major component of almost all common inorganic soil particles,
with the exceptions of quartz sand, chert fragments, and
ferromanganiferous concretions. The typical range of aluminium in soils
is from 1 percent to 30 percent (10,000 to 300,000 mg Al/kg) (Lindsay,
1979 and Dragun, 1988), with naturally occurring concentrations varying
over several orders of magnitude.
EPA recognizes that due to the ubiquitous nature of aluminium, the
natural variability of aluminium soil concentrations and the
availability of conservative soil screening benchmarks (Efroymson,
1997a; 1997b), aluminium is often identified as a COPC for ecological
risk assessments. The commonly used soil screening benchmarks
(Efroymson, 1997a; 1997b) are based on laboratory toxicity testing using
an aluminium solution that is added to test soils.
Comparisons of total aluminium concentrations in soil samples to
soluble aluminum-based screening values are deemed by EPA to be
inappropriate. The standard analytical measurement of aluminium in soils
under CERCLA contract laboratory procedures (CLP) is total recoverable
metal. The available data on the environmental chemistry and toxicity of
aluminium in soil to plants, soil invertebrates, mammals and birds as
summarized in this document support the following conclusions:
Total aluminium in soil is not correlated with toxicity to the
tested plants and soil invertebrates.
Aluminium toxicity is associated with soluble aluminum.
Soluble aluminum and not total aluminum is associated with the
uptake and bioaccumulation of aluminium from soils into plants.
The oral toxicity of aluminum compounds in soil is dependent upon
the chemical form (Storer and Nelson, 1968). Insoluble aluminium
compounds such as aluminium oxides are considerably less toxic compared
to the soluble forms (aluminium chloride, nitrate, acetate, and
sulfate). For example, Storer and Nelson (1968) observed no toxicity to
the chick at up to 1.6% of the diet as aluminium oxide compared to 80 to
100% mortality in chicks fed soluble forms at 0.5% of the diet.
the measurement of total aluminium in soils is not considered suitable
or reliable for the prediction of potential toxicity and
bioaccumulation, an alternative procedure is recommended for screening
aluminium in soils. The procedure is intended as a practical approach
for determining if aluminium in site soils could pose a potential risk
to ecological receptors. This alternative procedure replaces the
derivation of numeric Eco-SSL values for aluminium. "
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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