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EC number: 215-691-6
CAS number: 1344-28-1
Table B4. Mortalities of Snails (Physa sp.)
Exposed to Al3+ for 96 hr in Lake Superior Water at pH 6.59, 7.55, and
Al 3+ concentrations (mg/L)
Table 3. Acute Al toxicity with Ceriodaphnia
dubia in EPA Very Soft water (Hardness 10.6,60,120 mg/L as CaCO3) at
pH 8 and DOC of 0,2,4 mg/L.
Mean Dissolved (µg/L)
* - Precipitation observed in the vessel
Table 2. Mean cumulative percent survival of Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed
to aluminium at 3 pH levels.
Aluminium Exposure (mg/L)
was more soluble at lower exposure concentrations but began
to form visible precipitate as Al exposure concentra- tions
Due to this variability in solubility, actual exposure
concentrations were slightly lower than target
Catchment degradation and exposure of acid sulphate soils can affect
estuarine water quality, and this can have impacts on the health of
estuarine species and adversely affect fishery productivity. In degraded
catchments, aluminium (Al) is mobilised from clay minerals following
oxidation of acid sulphate soils, and may be harmful to estuarine
crustaceans. We tested the acute toxicity and sub-lethal effects of Al
for School Prawn (Metapenaeus macleayi), through a series of experiments
conducted under normal (pH 8) and acidic (pH 5) conditions. Experimental
data were used to examine mortality. Also, histological examination of
the gills and hepatopancreas was conducted to determine pathological
consequences of exposure to these stressors. School Prawn did not
experience mortality in response to acute exposure to Al under normal pH
conditions, but mortality and tissue bioaccumulation of Al was greater
under acidic conditions, suggesting an interactive effect of both
stressors. Histology revealed sub-lethal effects of Al including
structural abnormal- ities in the gills and hepatopancreas, and evidence
of viral infection and immune response, particularly at lower pH and
higher Al concentrations. These impacts may impede major vital functions
such as respiration, osmotic regulation, metabolism and growth of
juvenile School Prawn, which could contribute to productivity
bottlenecks in degraded estuaries.
Acute toxicity tests of five metals (aluminum, cadmium, iron, lead,
zinc) were performed to determine LC50 values in two species of
freshwater rotifers: Asplanchna brigthwellii and its prey Brachionus
calyciflorus. We conducted the tests using neonates less than 24 hr-old,
each test consisted of five replicates, negative control and five metal
concentrations (Al, Cd, Fe, Pb, Zn). We found that the prey rotifer B.
calyciflorus was more sensitive to Al, Cd, Pb and Fe than the predator
rotifer A. brightwellii. For both rotifers Cd was the most toxic of the
five metals. It was established that the strain of B. ca- lyciflorus
studied is sensitive when compared with other B. calyciflorus strains
and other species and genera of the family Brachionidae. In the other
hand, LC50 values of A. brigthwellii are compared with rotifer and
Adult freshwater snails Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropod, Thiaridae)
were exposed for a four-day period in laboratory conditions to a range
of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron
(Fe), aluminium (Al), and manganese (Mn) concentrations. Mortality was
assessed and median lethal times (LT50) and concentrations (LC50) were
calculated. LT50 and LC50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure
concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. The LC50 values
for the 96- hour exposures to Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al, and Mn were
0.14, 1.49, 3.90, 6.82, 8.46, 8.49, 68.23, and 45.59 mg L−1 ,
respectively. Cu was the most toxic metal to M. tuberculata, followed by
Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Al (Cu > Cd > Zn > Pb > Ni > Fe > Mn > Al).
Metals bioconcentration in M. tuberculata increases with exposure to
increasing concentrations and Cu has the highest accumulation
(concentration factor) in the soft tissues. A comparison of LC50 values
for metals for this species with those for other freshwater gastropods
reveals that M. tuberculata is equally sensitive to metals.
Reliable (K1, K2) acute toxicity data were identified for five
invertebrate species, and the majority of reported effect levels were
obtained with the standard species D. magna and C. dubia. The available
48-h EC/LC50 values varied from 0.071 to > 99.6 mg Al/L. The acute NOECs
(48 h) varied from > 0.005 to > 0.135 mg Al/L. Most of the variation in
results can be explained by differences in hardness and DOC in the test
Acute toxicity for the non-standard species Acronuria sp.,
Gammarus sp. And Physa sp. – expressed as mg Al/L – were >22.6, 22 and
30.6 mg/L, respectively.
Effect levels were expressed as mg Al/L (total, dissolved), but
the complex speciation properties of Al and its low solubility make the
interpretation of reported effect levels challenging. This is reflected
in the results that were generated by CIMM (2009) with C. dubia where
the difference in EC50 expressed as either dissolved aluminum or total
aluminium was up to three orders of magnitude.
For a detailed overview of the data, more information is provided
in the Background document "Environmental Effects Assessment of
Aluminium" attached to IUCLID section 13.
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