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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
it is unclear whether the hexahydrate (CAS 7784-13-6) or the anhydrous form (CAS 7446-70-0) of aluminium chloride was used
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
no information provided
Details on test solutions:
AlCl3 was dissolved, separately, in 1000 mL deionized water and stock solutions prepared
Test organisms (species):
other: Channa marulius
Details on test organisms:
Fish were obtained from Head Qadirabad and brought to the wet laboratory for acclimatization in cemented tanks for two weeks. The fish were fed pelleted feed having 40% digestible protein and 3.50 kcal g-1 energy, thrice a day.
Size of test organisms at start of the test: 100 mm total length
Average wet weight: 5.32 g (+/- 0.15)
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
250 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
28°C
pH:
8
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The concentration of exposed Al was started from zero with an increment of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/L for low and high concentrations, respectively. Concentrations went up to that concentration at which 50% (LC50) and 100% mortality of fish (lethal concentration) occurred during 96 h.
Details on test conditions:
The toxicity tests were conducted in glass aquaria of 50 L water capacity
Ten individuals were placed in each aquarium, with three replications for each test dose.
The media were renewed and the metallic ions concentration maintained after every 24 h.
Constant aeration of the aquarium water was done with an air pump fitted with capillary system.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
114.97 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 3.28 mg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
164.85 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 7.54 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The acute toxicities of Al were computed by using Probit analysis method (Hamilton et al., 1977). Mean values of 96 h LC50 and lethal concentrations were obtained at 95% confidence intervals. Data were statistically analyzed by using Factorial experiments (RCBD), while means were compared for statistical differences by employing Tukey’s/Student Newman-Keul test (Steel et al., 1996).
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of aluminum (Al) and cobalt (Co), in terms of both 96 h LC50 and lethal concentrations, was determined for three fish species viz. Channa marulius, Mystus seenghala and Wallago attu under controlled laboratory conditions. The experiments were performed at constant water temperature (28oC), pH (8) and total hardness (250 mg L-1). At the end of toxicity trials, the dead fish were dissected, digested and then analyzed for respective exposure metal’s concentrations in various body organs viz. gills, liver, kidney, heart, gut, intestine, muscles, bones and skin. There existed statistically significant variations at p<0.05 among the three fish species toward Al and Co acute toxicities (96 h LC50 and lethal concentrations) that followed the order: C. marulius>W. attu>M. seenghala. Statistically all the three species of fish were found more sensitive to Al than Co toxicity. During acute concentrations exposure, C. marulius exhibited significantly higher potential to accumulate Al and Co in its body followed by W. attu and M. seenghala. At both 96 h LC50 and lethal concentration exposures, all the three carnivorous fish species had significantly (p<0.05) higher tendency to concentrate both metals in their liver, followed by the kidney, gills, heart, gut, intestine, bones and skin. However, they exhibited significantly lower Al and Co concentrations in their muscles. The overall accumulation pattern of metals in the bodies of all three carnivorous fish species followed the order: Co>Al.


Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
it is unclear whether the hexahydrate (CAS 7784-13-6) or the anhydrous form (CAS 7446-70-0) of aluminium chloride was used
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
no information provided
Details on test solutions:
AlCl3 was dissolved, separately, in 1000 mL deionized water and stock solutions prepared
Test organisms (species):
other: Mystus seenghala
Details on test organisms:
Fish were obtained from Head Qadirabad and brought to the wet laboratory for acclimatization in cemented tanks for two weeks. The fish were fed pelleted feed having 40% digestible protein and 3.50 kcal g-1 energy, thrice a day.
Size of test organisms at start of the test: 100 mm total length
Average wet weight: 4.76 g (+/- 0.11)
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
250 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
28°C
pH:
8
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The concentration of exposed Al was started from zero with an increment of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/L for low and high concentrations, respectively. Concentrations went up to that concentration at which 50% (LC50) and 100% mortality of fish (lethal concentration) occurred during 96 h.
Details on test conditions:
The toxicity tests were conducted in glass aquaria of 50 L water capacity
Ten individuals were placed in each aquarium, with three replications for each test dose.
The media were renewed and the metallic ions concentration maintained after every 24 h.
Constant aeration of the aquarium water was done with an air pump fitted with capillary system.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
45.52 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 2.44 mg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
75.56 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 4.94 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The acute toxicities of Al were computed by using Probit analysis method (Hamilton et al., 1977). Mean values of 96 h LC50 and lethal concentrations were obtained at 95% confidence intervals. Data were statistically analyzed by using Factorial experiments (RCBD), while means were compared for statistical differences by employing Tukey’s/Student Newman-Keul test (Steel et al., 1996).
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of aluminum (Al) and cobalt (Co), in terms of both 96 h LC50 and lethal concentrations, was determined for three fish species viz. Channa marulius, Mystus seenghala and Wallago attu under controlled laboratory conditions. The experiments were performed at constant water temperature (28oC), pH (8) and total hardness (250 mg L-1). At the end of toxicity trials, the dead fish were dissected, digested and then analyzed for respective exposure metal’s concentrations in various body organs viz. gills, liver, kidney, heart, gut, intestine, muscles, bones and skin. There existed statistically significant variations at p<0.05 among the three fish species toward Al and Co acute toxicities (96 h LC50 and lethal concentrations) that followed the order: C. marulius>W. attu>M. seenghala. Statistically all the three species of fish were found more sensitive to Al than Co toxicity. During acute concentrations exposure, C. marulius exhibited significantly higher potential to accumulate Al and Co in its body followed by W. attu and M. seenghala. At both 96 h LC50 and lethal concentration exposures, all the three carnivorous fish species had significantly (p<0.05) higher tendency to concentrate both metals in their liver, followed by the kidney, gills, heart, gut, intestine, bones and skin. However, they exhibited significantly lower Al and Co concentrations in their muscles. The overall accumulation pattern of metals in the bodies of all three carnivorous fish species followed the order: Co>Al.


Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
it is unclear whether the hexahydrate (CAS 7784-13-6) or the anhydrous form (CAS 7446-70-0) of aluminium chloride was used
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
no information provided
Details on test solutions:
AlCl3 was dissolved, separately, in 1000 mL deionized water and stock solutions prepared
Test organisms (species):
other: Wallago attu
Details on test organisms:
Fish were obtained from Head Qadirabad and brought to the wet laboratory for acclimatization in cemented tanks for two weeks. The fish were fed pelleted feed having 40% digestible protein and 3.50 kcal g-1 energy, thrice a day.
Size of test organisms at start of the test: 100 mm total length
Average wet weight: 9.28 g (+/- 0.24)
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
250 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
28°C
pH:
8
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The concentration of exposed Al was started from zero with an increment of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/L for low and high concentrations, respectively. Concentrations went up to that concentration at which 50% (LC50) and 100% mortality of fish (lethal concentration) occurred during 96 h.
Details on test conditions:
The toxicity tests were conducted in glass aquaria of 50 L water capacity
Ten individuals were placed in each aquarium, with three replications for each test dose.
The media were renewed and the metallic ions concentration maintained after every 24 h.
Constant aeration of the aquarium water was done with an air pump fitted with capillary system.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
74.24 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 2.66 mg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
109.13 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 5.06 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The acute toxicities of Al were computed by using Probit analysis method (Hamilton et al., 1977). Mean values of 96 h LC50 and lethal concentrations were obtained at 95% confidence intervals. Data were statistically analyzed by using Factorial experiments (RCBD), while means were compared for statistical differences by employing Tukey’s/Student Newman-Keul test (Steel et al., 1996).
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of aluminum (Al) and cobalt (Co), in terms of both 96 h LC50 and lethal concentrations, was determined for three fish species viz. Channa marulius, Mystus seenghala and Wallago attu under controlled laboratory conditions. The experiments were performed at constant water temperature (28oC), pH (8) and total hardness (250 mg L-1). At the end of toxicity trials, the dead fish were dissected, digested and then analyzed for respective exposure metal’s concentrations in various body organs viz. gills, liver, kidney, heart, gut, intestine, muscles, bones and skin. There existed statistically significant variations at p<0.05 among the three fish species toward Al and Co acute toxicities (96 h LC50 and lethal concentrations) that followed the order: C. marulius>W. attu>M. seenghala. Statistically all the three species of fish were found more sensitive to Al than Co toxicity. During acute concentrations exposure, C. marulius exhibited significantly higher potential to accumulate Al and Co in its body followed by W. attu and M. seenghala. At both 96 h LC50 and lethal concentration exposures, all the three carnivorous fish species had significantly (p<0.05) higher tendency to concentrate both metals in their liver, followed by the kidney, gills, heart, gut, intestine, bones and skin. However, they exhibited significantly lower Al and Co concentrations in their muscles. The overall accumulation pattern of metals in the bodies of all three carnivorous fish species followed the order: Co>Al.


Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Al(NO3)3.9H2O
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
no information provided
Details on test solutions:
Al-salt was dissolved in deionized water and a stock solution was prepared
Test organisms (species):
other: Catla catla
Details on test organisms:
Fingerlings were obtained from the Fish Seed Hatchery, Faisalabad and kept in holding tanks, supplied with flow through aerated water and acclimated for 48 hours, in the laboratory before conducting toxicity tests.
Three age groups were tested: 60 days, 120 days and 240 days
Test type:
not specified
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
300 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
30°C
pH:
7.5
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The exposure concentration of Al was started from zero with an increment of 0.05 and 0.50 mg.L-1 (as total concentration) for low and high concentrations, respectively.
Details on test conditions:
Tests were performed in glass aquaria containing 50-liter water.
Ten fish of each age group and species were tested against various concentrations of Al with three replications for each test dose.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
59.56 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.53 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 60 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
71.58 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.61 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 120 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
113.89 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.60 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 240 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
104.58 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.56 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 60 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
120.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.26 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 120 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
164.34 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.59 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 240 days
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mean values for 96-hr LC50 and lethal concentrations were determined by using three replications for each treatment/test dose with 95% confidence intervals. MINITAB computer program based on Probit Static Bioassay test system was used to statistically analyze the fish mortality data. Analysis of Variance and Tuckey’s Student Newman-Keul test (Steel et al., 1996) were used to find-out statistical differences among various variables under study.
Executive summary:

Acute toxicity tests (96-hr LC50 and lethal concentration) of aluminium (Al) were conducted with three fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala of 60, 120 and 240 days age groups at constant water temperature (30oC), pH (7.50) and total hardness (300 mg.L-1) in the wet laboratory. At termination of each trial, the fish were dissected and their organs viz. bones, gills, gut, intestine, kidney, liver, scales, skin, muscles and fats isolated for the determination of Al concentrations. At 60 days, all the three fish species showed significantly (P<0.05) higher sensitivity to Al while 240 days fish were significantly least sensitive. Among the three fish species, Catla catla were significantly (P<0.05) more sensitivity to Al with the mean 96-hr LC50 and lethal concentration of 81.68±28.54 and 129.81±30.95 mg.L-1, respectively. Fish organs showed significantly variable ability to concentrate metal during acute exposure of Al. However, liver and kidneys exhibited significantly higher potentials for metals accumulation. From the study it was concluded that all the three fish species responded differently towards Al toxicity.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Al(NO3)3.9H2O
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
no information provided
Details on test solutions:
Al-salt was dissolved in deionized water and a stock solution was prepared
Test organisms (species):
other: Cirrhina mrigala
Details on test organisms:
Fingerlings were obtained from the Fish Seed Hatchery, Faisalabad and kept in holding tanks, supplied with flow through aerated water and acclimated for 48 hours, in the laboratory before conducting toxicity tests.
Three age groups were tested: 60 days, 120 days and 240 days
Test type:
not specified
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
300 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
30°C
pH:
7.5
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The exposure concentration of Al was started from zero with an increment of 0.05 and 0.50 mg.L-1 (as total concentration) for low and high concentrations, respectively.
Details on test conditions:
Tests were performed in glass aquaria containing 50-liter water.
Ten fish of each age group and species were tested against various concentrations of Al with three replications for each test dose.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
91.77 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.42 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 60 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
114.17 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.38 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 120 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
149.14 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.60 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 240 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
137.28 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.43 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 60 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
177.45 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.41 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 120 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
221.82 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.29 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 240 days
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mean values for 96-hr LC50 and lethal concentrations were determined by using three replications for each treatment/test dose with 95% confidence intervals. MINITAB computer program based on Probit Static Bioassay test system was used to statistically analyze the fish mortality data. Analysis of Variance and Tuckey’s Student Newman-Keul test (Steel et al., 1996) were used to find-out statistical differences among various variables under study.
Executive summary:

Acute toxicity tests (96-hr LC50 and lethal concentration) of aluminium (Al) were conducted with three fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala of 60, 120 and 240 days age groups at constant water temperature (30oC), pH (7.50) and total hardness (300 mg.L-1) in the wet laboratory. At termination of each trial, the fish were dissected and their organs viz. bones, gills, gut, intestine, kidney, liver, scales, skin, muscles and fats isolated for the determination of Al concentrations. At 60 days, all the three fish species showed significantly (P<0.05) higher sensitivity to Al while 240 days fish were significantly least sensitive. Among the three fish species, Catla catla were significantly (P<0.05) more sensitivity to Al with the mean 96-hr LC50 and lethal concentration of 81.68±28.54 and 129.81±30.95 mg.L-1, respectively. Fish organs showed significantly variable ability to concentrate metal during acute exposure of Al. However, liver and kidneys exhibited significantly higher potentials for metals accumulation. From the study it was concluded that all the three fish species responded differently towards Al toxicity.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Al(NO3)3.9H2O
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
no information provided
Details on test solutions:
Al-salt was dissolved in deionized water and a stock solution was prepared
Test organisms (species):
other: Labeo rohita
Details on test organisms:
Fingerlings were obtained from the Fish Seed Hatchery, Faisalabad and kept in holding tanks, supplied with flow through aerated water and acclimated for 48 hours, in the laboratory before conducting toxicity tests.
Three age groups were tested: 60 days, 120 days and 240 days
Test type:
not specified
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
300 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
30°C
pH:
7.5
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The exposure concentration of Al was started from zero with an increment of 0.05 and 0.50 mg.L-1 (as total concentration) for low and high concentrations, respectively.
Details on test conditions:
Tests were performed in glass aquaria containing 50-liter water.
Ten fish of each age group and species were tested against various concentrations of Al with three replications for each test dose.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
78.32 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.60 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 60 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
97.49 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.57 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 120 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
140.58 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.59 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 240 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
115.84 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.40 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 60 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
137.32 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.35 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 120 days
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
182.74 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: SD: 0.40 mg/L
Remarks:
age group: 240 days
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mean values for 96-hr LC50 and lethal concentrations were determined by using three replications for each treatment/test dose with 95% confidence intervals. MINITAB computer program based on Probit Static Bioassay test system was used to statistically analyze the fish mortality data. Analysis of Variance and Tuckey’s Student Newman-Keul test (Steel et al., 1996) were used to find-out statistical differences among various variables under study.
Executive summary:

Acute toxicity tests (96-hr LC50 and lethal concentration) of aluminium (Al) were conducted with three fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala of 60, 120 and 240 days age groups at constant water temperature (30oC), pH (7.50) and total hardness (300 mg.L-1) in the wet laboratory. At termination of each trial, the fish were dissected and their organs viz. bones, gills, gut, intestine, kidney, liver, scales, skin, muscles and fats isolated for the determination of Al concentrations. At 60 days, all the three fish species showed significantly (P<0.05) higher sensitivity to Al while 240 days fish were significantly least sensitive. Among the three fish species, Catla catla were significantly (P<0.05) more sensitivity to Al with the mean 96-hr LC50 and lethal concentration of 81.68±28.54 and 129.81±30.95 mg.L-1, respectively. Fish organs showed significantly variable ability to concentrate metal during acute exposure of Al. However, liver and kidneys exhibited significantly higher potentials for metals accumulation. From the study it was concluded that all the three fish species responded differently towards Al toxicity.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
Not reported
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Young-of-the-year catfish were exposed to 2 concentrations of Al and a control at pH 7.5. Three fish were placed in aquaria with 22 L of water near 17 degrees C. Aquaria were aerated throughout the tests, fish were not fed. Mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs to calculate an LC50.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Analytical purity: 99.7%
- Source: MCB Manufacturing Chemists, Inc.
- Lot/batch No.: B7N14
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all test concentrations and controls
- Sampling method: samples were collected before, at the beginning of, and at the end of the exposure period. Samples (15-20 mL) were collected midway between the surface and bottom of the water column in the center of each exposure chamber. A 30 mL adjustable-volume glass-teflon syringe was rinsed three times with the exposure water prior to collecting a sample.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: All samples were immediately acidified to 1% (v/v) with concentrated nitric acid (Baker Instra analyzed Lot No: 340040). Two mL of potassium chloride solution (95 g KCl/L) was added per 100 mL sample, as suggested in method 202.1. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastewater (U.S. EPA, 1979).
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Exposure and control tanks were prepared a minimum of 48 hr in advance of organism introduction to the tanks. The water volume was measured, then added to each exposure tank, and aluminum introduced from a 50,000 mg/l stock solution. Daily adjustments of pH were necessary in many of the exposures. Tests run at pH values above neutrality declined in pH in proportion to the total aluminum present. Controls dropped the least or not at all. Tests run at a pH below neutrality (6.5 nominal) rose in pH in all test chambers.
- Evidence of undissolved material: a precipitate was readily apparent at concentrations of 3.12 mg/L or above
- All other template details: Not reported
Test organisms (species):
Ictalurus punctatus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: channel catfish
- Source: fish were received from the Environmental Research Laboratory - Duluth
- Length: control fish at the end of the exposure were 96 ± 13 mm
- Weight: control fish at the end of the exposure were 6.98 ± 2.98 g
- All other template details: Not reported

ACCLIMATION: Not reported

QUARANTINE (wild caught): Not applicable
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
47.4 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
nominal: 17 degrees C.
Mean measured water temperature was 16.7 ± 0.2 degrees C (range, 16.5-16.9 degrees C, n=30)
pH:
nominal: 7.5
mean measured pH: 7.54 ± 0.16 (n=42)
Dissolved oxygen:
8.9 ± 0.12 mg/L (n=30)
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal Al (mg/L): 0, 12.5, 50.0
Measured Al (mg/L) for both replicates: <0.3/<0.3, 13.0/12.8, 47.4/48.0
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: aquarium
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: (L x W x H equal to 30 x 30 x 30 cm) containing 22.0 L of water
- Aeration: aquaria were aerated throughout the tests
- No. of organisms per vessel: 3
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- All other template details: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Lake Superior water collected from a tap on the City of Cloquet, MN raw water intake in the City of Superior, WI. The source of the water was from approximately 3200 meters offshore on the lake bottom.
- Total solids: 61 ± 5 mg/L
- Particulate matter (total suspended solids): <1.0 mg/L
- Chloride: 1.5 ± 0.42 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 41.6 ± 1.27 mg/L as CaCO3
- Culture medium different from test medium: no
- Intervals of water quality measurement: measured on each batch of water used
- All other template details: Not reported

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Exposure solutions were pH adjusted using either NaOH or HCl of ACS grade purity if the pH differed from the desired test pH by more than 0.2 units.
- Photoperiod: not reported
- Light intensity: not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2 times lower concentration
- All other template details: Not reported
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 50 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: pH 7.54, no mortalities observed in any tests
Details on results:
- At nominal pH 7.5 (mean measured pH of 7.54), no mortalities occurred through 96 hr of exposure to total Al concentrations ranging to 50 mg/L.
- Mortality of control: 0/6 fish
- All other template details: Not reported
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Not reported
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Not applicable

Conclusions:
There were no mortalities through 96 hours for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed to Al up to 50 mg/L at a measured pH of 7.54.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
Not reported
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Young-of-the-year green sunfish were exposed to 4 concentrations of Al and a control at pH 7.7. Eight to eleven sunfish were placed in aquaria with 12 L of water at 22 degrees C. Aquaria were aerated throughout the tests, fish were not fed. Mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs to calculate an LC50.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Analytical purity: 99.7%
- Source: MCB Manufacturing Chemists, Inc.
- Lot/batch No.: B7N14
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all test concentrations and controls
- Sampling method: samples were collected before, at the beginning of, and at the end of the exposure period. Samples (15-20 mL) were collected midway between the surface and bottom of the water column in the center of each exposure chamber. A 30 mL adjustable-volume glass-teflon syringe was rinsed three times with the exposure water prior to collecting a sample.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: All samples were immediately acidified to 1% (v/v) with concentrated nitric acid (Baker Instra analyzed Lot No: 340040). Two mL of potassium chloride solution (95 g KCl/L) was added per 100 mL sample, as suggested in method 202.1. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastewater (U.S. EPA, 1979).
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Exposure and control tanks were prepared a minimum of 48 hr in advance of organism introduction to the tanks. The water volume was measured, then added to each exposure tank, and aluminum introduced from a 50,000 mg/l stock solution. Daily adjustments of pH were necessary in many of the exposures. Tests run at pH values above neutrality declined in pH in proportion to the total aluminum present. Controls dropped the least or not at all. Tests run at a pH below neutrality (6.5 nominal) rose in pH in all test chambers.
- Evidence of undissolved material: a precipitate was readily apparent at concentrations of 3.12 mg/L or above
- All other template details: Not reported
Test organisms (species):
Lepomis cyanellus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: green sunfish
- Source: fish were received from Fattig Fish Hatchery, Brady, NE
- Age at study initiation: about 3 months old
- All other template details: Not reported

ACCLIMATION: Not reported

QUARANTINE (wild caught): Not applicable
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
47.4 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
nominal: 22 degrees C.
Mean measured water temperature was 22.2 ± 4 degrees C (range, 20.9-22.6 degrees C, n=50)
pH:
nominal: 7.7
mean measured pH: 7.55 ± 0.13 (n=50)
Dissolved oxygen:
8.1 ± 0.5 mg/L (n=24)
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal Al (mg/L): 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0
Measured Al (mg/L) for both replicates: <0.3/<0.3, 6.4/6.3, 12.2/12.2, 24.6/25.0, 49.9/50.0
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: aquarium
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: (L x W x H equal to 30.5 x 21 x 25.5 cm) containing 12.0 L of water
- Aeration: aquaria were aerated throughout the tests
- No. of organisms per vessel: 8-11
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- All other template details: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Lake Superior water collected from a tap on the City of Cloquet, MN raw water intake in the City of Superior, WI. The source of the water was from approximately 3200 meters offshore on the lake bottom.
- Total solids: 61 ± 5 mg/L
- Particulate matter (total suspended solids): <1.0 mg/L
- Chloride: 1.5 ± 0.42 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 41.6 ± 1.27 mg/L as CaCO3
- Culture medium different from test medium: no
- Intervals of water quality measurement: measured on each batch of water used
- All other template details: Not reported

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Exposure solutions were pH adjusted using either NaOH or HCl of ACS grade purity if the pH differed from the desired test pH by more than 0.2 units.
- Photoperiod: not reported
- Light intensity: not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2 times lower concentration
- All other template details: Not reported
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 50 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: pH 7.55, no mortalities observed in any tests
Details on results:
- At nominal pH 7.5 (mean measured pH of 7.55), no mortalities occurred through 96 hr of exposure to total Al concentrations ranging from 6.4 to 50 mg/L.
- Mortality of control: 0/20 fish
- All other template details: Not reported
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Not reported
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Not applicable

Conclusions:
There were no mortalities through 96 hours for green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) exposed to Al up to 50 mg/L at a measured pH of 7.55.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
Not reported
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Young-of-the-year yellow perch were exposed to 2 concentrations of Al and a control at pH 7.6. Three fish were placed in aquaria with 20 L of water near 17 degrees C. Aquaria were aerated throughout the tests, fish were not fed. Mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs to calculate an LC50.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Analytical purity: 99.7%
- Source: MCB Manufacturing Chemists, Inc.
- Lot/batch No.: B7N14
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all test concentrations and controls
- Sampling method: samples were collected before, at the beginning of, and at the end of the exposure period. Samples (15-20 mL) were collected midway between the surface and bottom of the water column in the center of each exposure chamber. A 30 mL adjustable-volume glass-teflon syringe was rinsed three times with the exposure water prior to collecting a sample.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: All samples were immediately acidified to 1% (v/v) with concentrated nitric acid (Baker Instra analyzed Lot No: 340040). Two mL of potassium chloride solution (95 g KCl/L) was added per 100 mL sample, as suggested in method 202.1. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastewater (U.S. EPA, 1979).
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Exposure and control tanks were prepared a minimum of 48 hr in advance of organism introduction to the tanks. The water volume was measured, then added to each exposure tank, and aluminum introduced from a 50,000 mg/l stock solution. Daily adjustments of pH were necessary in many of the exposures. Tests run at pH values above neutrality declined in pH in proportion to the total aluminum present. Controls dropped the least or not at all. Tests run at a pH below neutrality (6.5 nominal) rose in pH in all test chambers.
- Evidence of undissolved material: a precipitate was readily apparent at concentrations of 3.12 mg/L or above
- All other template details: Not reported
Test organisms (species):
Perca flavescens
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: yellow perch
- Source: fish were collected in the Superior, WI harbor
- Length: control fish at the end of the exposure were 84 ± 6 mm
- Weight: control fish at the end of the exposure were 4.85 ± 1.20 g
- All other template details: Not reported

ACCLIMATION:
- Acclimation period: several days
- All other template details: Not reported

QUARANTINE (wild caught): Not reported
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
47.4 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
nominal: 17 degrees C.
Mean measured water temperature was 16.6 ± 0.17 degrees C (range, 16.4-16.9 degrees C, n=30)
pH:
nominal: 7.5
mean measured pH: 7.55 ± 0.12 (n=30)
Dissolved oxygen:
9.8 ± 0.10 mg/L (n=18)
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal Al (mg/L): 0, 12.5, 50.0
Measured Al (mg/L) for both replicates: <0.3/<0.3, 12.9/12.8, 49.3/50.2
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: aquarium
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: (L x W x H equal to 30 x 30 x 30 cm) containing 20.0 L of water
- Aeration: aquaria were aerated throughout the tests
- No. of organisms per vessel: 3
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- All other template details: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Lake Superior water collected from a tap on the City of Cloquet, MN raw water intake in the City of Superior, WI. The source of the water was from approximately 3200 meters offshore on the lake bottom.
- Total solids: 61 ± 5 mg/L
- Particulate matter (total suspended solids): <1.0 mg/L
- Chloride: 1.5 ± 0.42 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 41.6 ± 1.27 mg/L as CaCO3
- Culture medium different from test medium: no
- Intervals of water quality measurement: measured on each batch of water used
- All other template details: Not reported

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Exposure solutions were pH adjusted using either NaOH or HCl of ACS grade purity if the pH differed from the desired test pH by more than 0.2 units.
- Photoperiod: not reported
- Light intensity: not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2 times lower concentration
- All other template details: Not reported
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 50 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: pH 7.55, no mortalities observed in any tests
Details on results:
- At nominal pH 7.6 (mean measured pH of 7.55), no mortalities occurred through 96 hr of exposure to total Al concentrations ranging to 50 mg/L.
- Mortality of control: 0/6 fish
- All template details: Not reported
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Not reported
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Not applicable

Conclusions:
There were no mortalities through 96 hours for yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exposed to Al up to 50 mg/L at a measured pH of 7.55.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
Not reported
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Month old fathead minnows were exposed to 3-5 concentrations of Al and a control at two pH levels (7.5, 8.2). Fish were placed in 1 L glass beakers with 900 mL of water at 22 degrees C. Aquaria were aerated throughout the tests, fish were not fed. Mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs to calculate an LC50.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Analytical purity: 99.7%
- Source: MCB Manufacturing Chemists, Inc.
- Lot/batch No.: B7N14
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all test concentrations and controls
- Sampling method: samples were collected before, at the beginning of, and at the end of the exposure period. Samples (15-20 mL) were collected midway between the surface and bottom of the water column in the center of each exposure chamber. A 30 mL adjustable-volume glass-teflon syringe was rinsed three times with the exposure water prior to collecting a sample.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: All samples were immediately acidified to 1% (v/v) with concentrated nitric acid (Baker Instra analyzed Lot No: 340040). Two mL of potassium chloride solution (95 g KCl/L) was added per 100 mL sample, as suggested in method 202.1. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastewater (U.S. EPA, 1979).
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Exposure and control tanks were prepared a minimum of 48 hr in advance of organism introduction to the tanks. The water volume was measured, then added to each exposure tank, and aluminum introduced from a 50,000 mg/l stock solution. Daily adjustments of pH were necessary in many of the exposures. Tests run at pH values above neutrality declined in pH in proportion to the total aluminum present. Controls dropped the least or not at all. Tests run at a pH below neutrality (6.5 nominal) rose in pH in all test chambers.
- Evidence of undissolved material: a precipitate was readily apparent at concentrations of 3.12 mg/L or above
- All other template details: Not reported
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: fathead minnow
- Source: Fish were reared in laboratory culture unit from embryos
- Length: Lengths of control fish at the end of each test were 16 ± 3 mm at pH 7.5, and 15 ± 2.44 mm at pH 8.2
- Weight: weights of control fish at the end of each test were 0.056 ± 0.032 g at pH 7.5, and 0.052 ± 0.027 g at pH 8.2
- Age: 32-33 days old
- All other template details: Not reported

ACCLIMATION: Not reported

QUARANTINE (wild caught): Not applicable
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
47.4 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
22 degrees C.
Mean temperature values (degrees C) were 22.9 ± 0.24 (n=11) at pH 7.5 and 22.9 ± 0.25 (n=13) at pH 8.2
pH:
nominal: 7.5, 8.2
mean measured pH: 7.61, 8.05
Dissolved oxygen:
pH 7.5 (mg/L): 8.1 ± 0.17
pH 8.2 (mg/L): 8.1 ± 0.07
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal Al for pH 7.5 (mg/L): 0, 12.5, 25, 50
Measured Al at pH 7.5 (mg/L) for both replicates: <0.3/<0.3, 12.2/12.4, 24.6/24.4, 48.6/47.9

Nominal for pH 8.2 (mg/L): 0, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50
Measured Al at pH 8.2 (mg/L) for both replicates: <0.3/<0.3, 2.9/2.9, 5.9/5.9, 13.2/12.7, 25.3/24.8, 49.2/50.5
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 1 L glass beakers
- Type: covered
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 1 L covered glass beakers containing 900 mL of water
- Aeration: beakers were aerated throughout the tests
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- All other template details: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Lake Superior water collected from a tap on the City of Cloquet, MN raw water intake in the City of Superior, WI. The source of the water was from approximately 3200 meters offshore on the lake bottom.
- Total solids: 61 ± 5 mg/L
- Particulate matter (total suspended solids): <1.0 mg/L
- Chloride: 1.5 ± 0.42 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 41.6 ± 1.27 mg/L as CaCO3
- Culture medium different from test medium: no
- Intervals of water quality measurement: measured on each batch of water used
- All other template details: Not reported

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Exposure solutions were pH adjusted using either NaOH or HCl of ACS grade purity if the pH differed from the desired test pH by more than 0.2 units.
- Photoperiod: not reported
- Light intensity: not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2 times lower concentration
- All other template details: Not reported
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 48.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: pH 7.61, no mortality at highest concentration
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 49.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: pH 8.05, no mortality at highest concentration
Details on results:
- At nominal pH 7.5 and 8.2(mean measured pHs of 7.61 and 8.05), no mortalities at highest concentration.
- Mortality of control: 0/20 fish
- All other template details: Not reported
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Not reported
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Not applicable

Conclusions:
The 96 hr LC50 estimates for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to Al at two pHs could not be determined as there were no mortalities at the highest exposure concentration tested, 50 mg/L.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
Not reported
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Fingerling trout were exposed to 4 concentrations of Al and a control at three pH levels (6.5, 7.5, 8.5). Five trout were placed in duplicate aquaria with 12 L of water at 17 degrees C. Aquaria were aerated throughout the tests, fish were not fed. Mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs to calculate an LC50.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Analytical purity: 99.7%
- Source: MCB Manufacturing Chemists, Inc.
- Lot/batch No.: B7N14
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all test concentrations and controls
- Sampling method: samples were collected before, at the beginning of, and at the end of the exposure period. Samples (15-20 mL) were collected midway between the surface and bottom of the water column in the center of each exposure chamber. A 30 mL adjustable-volume glass-teflon syringe was rinsed three times with the exposure water prior to collecting a sample.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: All samples were immediately acidified to 1% (v/v) with concentrated nitric acid (Baker Instra analyzed Lot No: 340040). Two mL of potassium chloride solution (95 g KCl/L) was added per 100 mL sample, as suggested in method 202.1. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastewater (U.S. EPA, 1979).
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Exposure and control tanks were prepared a minimum of 48 hr in advance of organism introduction to the tanks. The water volume was measured, then added to each exposure tank, and aluminum introduced from a 50,000 mg/l stock solution. Daily adjustments of pH were necessary in many of the exposures. Tests run at pH values above neutrality declined in pH in proportion to the total aluminum present. Controls dropped the least or not at all. Tests run at a pH below neutrality (6.5 nominal) rose in pH in all test chambers.
- Evidence of undissolved material: a precipitate was readily apparent at concentrations of 3.12 mg/L or above
- All other template details: Not reported
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: rainbow trout
- Source: Trout were received from Fattig Fish Hatchery, Brady, NE
- Length: Lengths of control fish at the end of each test were 56 ± 6 mm at pH 6.5., 57 ± 3 mm at pH 7.5, and 56 ± 4 mm at pH 8.5.
- Weight: weights of control fish at the end of each test were 1.51 ± 0.47 g at pH 6.5, 1.55 ± 0.23 g at pH 7.5, and 1.55 ± 0.41 g at pH 8.5.
- All other template details: Not reported

ACCLIMATION: Not reported

QUARANTINE (wild caught): Not applicable
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
47.4 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
17 degrees C. Daily measurements of temperature in all aquaria (n=50) produced mean temperature values (degrees C, ranges in parentheses) of 16.9 ± 0.69 (15.9-17.8) at pH 6.5, 17.3 ± 0.73 (15.9-18.3) at pH 7.5, and 17.5 ± 0.70 (16.0-l8.5) at pH 8.5.
pH:
nominal: 6.5, 7.5, 8.5
mean measured pH: 6.59 ± 0.15 (n=67), 7.31 ± 0.89 (n=62), and 8.17 ± 0.42 (n=78)
Dissolved oxygen:
pH 6.5 (mg/L): 8.7 ± 0.64
pH 7.5 (mg/L): 8.4 ± 0.40
pH 8.5 (mg/L): 8.6 ± 0.22
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal Al (mg/L): 0, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25
Measured Al at pH 6.5 (mg/L) for both replicates: <0.3/<0.3, 2.4/2.6, 5.2/5.6, 12.0/11.6, 23.4/23.5
Measured Al at pH 7.5 (mg/L) for both replicates: <0.3/<0.3, 2.9/1.0, 5.2/5.7, 17.9/12.4, 24.9/24.5
Measured Al at pH 8.5 (mg/L) for both replicates: <0.3/<0.3, 3.1/3.5, 6.0/6.4, 12.1/12.0, 12.4/24.7
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: aquarium
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: (L x W x H equal to 30.5 x 21 x 25.5 cm) containing 12.0 L of water
- Aeration: aquaria were aerated throughout the tests
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- All other template details: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Lake Superior water collected from a tap on the City of Cloquet, MN raw water intake in the City of Superior, WI. The source of the water was from approximately 3200 meters offshore on the lake bottom.
- Total solids: 61 ± 5 mg/L
- Particulate matter (total suspended solids): <1.0 mg/L
- Chloride: 1.5 ± 0.42 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 41.6 ± 1.27 mg/L as CaCO3
- Culture medium different from test medium: no
- Intervals of water quality measurement: measured on each batch of water used
- All other template details: Not reported

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Exposure solutions were pH adjusted using either NaOH or HCl of ACS grade purity if the pH differed from the desired test pH by more than 0.2 units.
- Photoperiod: not reported
- Light intensity: not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2 times lower concentration
- All other template details: Not reported
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
11.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: pH 6.5, 95% CI: 9.1-14.5 mg/L
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: pH 6.5, 95% CI: 8.0-12.3 mg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: pH 6.5, 95% CI: 5.8-9.4 mg/L
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
19.3 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: pH 7.5, 95% CI not available
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
14.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: pH 7.5, 95% CI: 9.3-23.1 mg/L
Details on results:
- At nominal pH 8.5 (mean measured pH of 8.17), insufficient mortalities occurred for an LC50 determination. Only 40% of the trout died after 96 hr of exposure at the highest total Al concentration of 24.7 mg/L.
- Mortality of control: 3/40 fish
- All other template details: Not reported
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Not reported
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Not applicable

Conclusions:
The 96 hr LC50 estimates for Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) exposed to Al at three pHs were; 7.4 mg/L at pH 6.5, 14.6 mg/L at pH 7.5, and could not be determined at pH 8.5 due to a maximum of 40% mortality.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
May 1992
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: USEPA 1985. Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents to freshwater and marine organisms. EPA/600/4-85/013.
Deviations:
not specified
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:

Not applicable
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: each test treatment and controls at test initiation and at test termination (or on the day that 100% mortality occurred in any chamber)
- Sampling method: test solutions from all test chambers within each treatment were composited
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: samples were immediately acidified with 1 mL nitric acid
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Not reported
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: fathead minnow
- Source: from the FCETL in-house cultures
- Age at study initiation: < 7 days old
- Feeding during test
- Food type: a concentrated suspension of newly hatched brine shrimp nauplii
- Amount: 0.1 mL per test chamber
- Frequency: once on day two of the test

ACCLIMATION: Not reported

QUARANTINE (wild caught): Not applicable
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
Nominal: 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/L as CaCO3
Measured: 26, 46, 96, 194 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20 ± 2 degrees C
pH:
pH: 7.8, 7.6, 8.1, 8.1 for test with hardness 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/L
Dissolved oxygen:
greater than 6.4 mg/L (84% saturation)
Salinity:
Not reported
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal with 25 mg/L hardness (mg/L): 0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50
Nominal with 50 mg/L hardness (mg/L): 0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50
Nominal with 100 mg/L hardness (mg/L): 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100
Nominal with 200 mg/L hardness (mg/L): 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100
Measured values in Table 1
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 1 L glass beakers
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 1 L glass beakers containing 250 mL test solution
- Aeration: none
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): renewed daily
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4
- All other template details: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: reconstituted water according to USEPA 1985 guidelines
- Chlorine (mg/L): <0.05 in all tests
- Alkalinity: 14, 30, 62, 134 mg/L as CaCO3 for hardness values 25,50,100,200 - respectively
- Conductivity (µS/cm): 94, 163, 299, 649 for hardness values 25,50,100,200 - respectively
- All other template details: Not reported

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: not reported
- Photoperiod: 16 hrs light: 8 hrs dark
- Light intensity: not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality every 24 hours

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: linear
- All other template details: Not reported
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
NaCl
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1.16 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 25 mg/L hardness; pH 7.8
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
8.18 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 50 mg/L hardness; pH 7.6
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
20.3 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 100 mg/L hardness; pH 8.1
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
44.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 200 mg/L hardness; pH 8.1
Details on results:
- Mortality of control: none for tests with hardness of 25, 50, 200; control mortality 10% for hardness 100 mg/L
- All other template details: Not reported
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? Yes
- Mortality: yes
- EC50/LC50: 24-hr LC50 4,950 mg/L Cl- as calculated by the binomial method
- Other: not reported
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 values were calculated for each test using a computer program supplied by USEPA (1985).
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Not applicable

Conclusions:
The 96-hr LC50 for Pimephales promelas exposed to Aluminium chloride increased from 1.16 to 44.8 mg/L with water hardness increasing from 25 to 200 mg/L.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
disregarded due to major methodological deficiencies
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Significant methodological deficiencies: no controls, only one aluminium concentration tested, no details on aluminium source provided.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
Not reported
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to four Aluminium concentrations for 96 hours in a continuous flow-through exposure system with four hardness concentrations. Mortality was observed daily for the calculation of an LC50. A subacute test also was performed with O.mykiss exposed to three aluminium concentrations for 16 days with growth as the measured endpoint.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all test concentrations and controls
- All other template details: Not reported
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: an aluminium stock was maintained at 16 mg Al/L with a pH of 9.0. The composition of the dilution water was 80 mg/L NaHCO3, 4 mg/L KCl, 10 mg/L CaSO4, and 5 mg/L MgSO4.
- All other template details: Not reported
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: rainbow trout
- Source: Oregon State University Marine and Freshwater Biomedical Center Core Facility, USA
- Age at study initiation: juveniles
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 1-3 g
- Feeding during 96-hr test: none
- Feeding during 16-d test
- Food type: Oregon Test Diet
- Amount: 8% ration size, uneaten food collected each day
- Frequency: daily
- All other template details: Not reported

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: not reported
- Acclimation conditions: same general conditions as tests
- Type and amount of food: Oregon Test Diet (Sinnhuber et al. 1977) ad libitum
- Feeding frequency: fed until 24 hours prior to acute exposures

QUARANTINE (wild caught): Not applicable
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
16 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
Nominal for 96-hr test (mg/L): 10, 30, 80, 120
Nominal for 16-d test (mg/L): 10, 100
Test temperature:
14 ± 0.5 degrees C
pH:
Nominal: 8.3, 7.3
Dissolved oxygen:
Measured but not reported
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal for 96-hr test (mg/L): control, 1,2,4,8
Nominal for 16-d test (mg/L): control, 1,2,4
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 75 L aquaria
- Type of flow-through: proportional diluter
- Renewal rate of test solution (flow rate): 100 mL/min, replacement time of 3.3 hours
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- All other template details: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: well water processed by reverse osmosis
- Intervals of water quality measurement for 96-hr test: aluminum and hardness were measured twice (48 and 96 hr), pH measured at test initiation and every 24 hr thereafter
- Intervals of water quality measurement for 16-d test: aluminum and hardness were measured at 4,8,12,and 16 days, pH measured at test initiation and every 24 hr thereafter
- All other template details: Not reported

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: water from the aluminum stock line was neutralized to pH 7.3 ± 0.1 in the head box by an automated CO2 delivery system for tests at pH 7.3. Solutions in all other storage tanks were adjusted to pH 8.70 ± 0.15 (1 N NaOH) every 24 hr and 7.00 ± 0.15 (1 N HCl)” every 24 hr for weakly alkaline and near-neutral experiments, respectively
- Photoperiod: 12 hr light : 12 hr dark
- Light intensity: Not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality observed daily, for the subacute test - fish were weighed before and after the exposure period

TEST CONCENTRATIONS: details not reported
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
6.17 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 5.33-7.25 mg/L; hardness 23.2 mg/L; pH 8.3
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
6.17 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 5.31-7.20 mg/L; hardness 35.0 mg/L; pH 8.3
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.67 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 6.22-9.61 mg/L; hardness 83.6 mg/L; pH 8.3
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
6.93 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: hardness 115.8 mg/L; pH 8.3
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.57 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.51-0.64 mg/L; hardness 23.2 mg/L; pH 8.3
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.61 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.51-0.73 mg/L; hardness 35.0 mg/L; pH 8.3
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.73 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.65-0.94 mg/L; hardness 83.6 mg/L; pH 8.3
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.67 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: hardness 115.8 mg/L; pH 8.3
Duration:
16 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1.49 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
weight
Remarks:
as relative growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: pH 8.05, hardness 20.6 mg/L
Duration:
16 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
3.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
weight
Remarks:
as relative growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: pH 8.14, hardness 20.3 mg/L
Duration:
16 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1.52 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
weight
Remarks:
as relative growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: pH 8.02, hardness 102.1 mg/L
Duration:
16 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
2.75 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
weight
Remarks:
as relative growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: pH 8.10, hardness 103.4 mg/L
Duration:
16 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
<= 0.89 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
weight
Remarks:
as relative growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: pH 7.33, hardness 15.0 mg/L; effect at lowest tested concentration, dissolved Al = 0.02 mg/L
Duration:
16 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
<= 0.94 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
weight
Remarks:
as relative growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: pH 7.33, hardness 84.8 mg/L; effect at lowest tested concentration, dissolved Al = 0.02 mg/L
Duration:
16 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1.94 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 1.62-2.38 mg/L, pH 8.3, hardness 20.3 mg/L
Duration:
16 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.43 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.31-0.61 mg/L, pH 8.3, hardness 20.3 mg/L
Duration:
16 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
3.91 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 2.86-8.57 mg/L, pH 8.3, hardness 103 mg/L
Duration:
16 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.67 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.53-1.19 mg/L, pH 8.3, hardness 103 mg/L
Details on results:
- There was no mortality at any of the exposure concentrations at nominal pH 7.3
- Mortality of control: none
- All other template details: Not reported
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
96-hr LC50 estimated using the trimmed Spearman-Karber method
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Table 1. Summary of test conditions and percent survival for 96-hr acute tests of O. mykiss at weakly alkaline pH.

 

 

Aluminum

 

pH

Total Hardness (mg/L)

Total (mg/L)

Dissolved (mg/L)

Percent Survival

7.97 ± 0.03

23.1 ± 0.1

<0.01

<0.01

100

8.02 ± 0.03

34.2 ± 3.9

<0.01

<0.01

100

8.06 ± 0.04

83.3 ± 4.4

<0.01

<0.01

100

8.06 ± 0.03

112.5 ± 6.1

<0.01

<0.01

100

8.12 ± 0.02

21.9 ± 0.7

0.81 ± 0.30

0.11 ± 0.04

100

8.10 ± 0.03

33.1 ± 3.5

1.02 ± 0.25

0.09 ± 0.04

100

8.23 ± 0.03

84.2 ± 4.3

0.91 ± 0.07

0.16 ± 0.03

100

8.25 ± 0.02

144.5 ± 6.7

1.05 ± 0.09

0.20 ± 0.02

100

8.22 ± 0.03

22.9 ± 2.3

1.86 ± 0.47

0.18 ± 0.08

100

8.20 ± 0.03

33.9 ± 4.0

2.04 ± 0.57

0.21 ± 0.05

100

8.23 ± 0.04

84.2 ± 4.5

1.92 ± 0.71

0.16 ± 0.03

100

8.25 ± 0.03

114.5 ± 5.3

1.68 ± 0.59

0.20 ± 0.10

100

8.34 ± 0.03

23.4 ± 2.5

3.73 ± 0.75

0.42 ± 0.18

85

8.36 ± 0.03

36.3 ± 3.2

4.32 ± 1.12

0.46 ± 0.15

85

8.36 ± 0.03

83.0 ± 4.7

4.17 ± 1.12

0.42 ± 0.14

95

8.33 ± 0.03

118.4 ± 5.4

3.94 ± 1.49

0.52 ± 0.13

100

8.58 ± 0.02

24.6 ± 2.8

11.96 ± 1.69

1.00 ± 0.14

0

8.58 ± 0.02

37.7 ± 3.3

9.33 ± 0.88

0.94 ± 0.15

5

8.56 ± 0.02

83.3 ± 5.0

7.95 ± 0.73

0.88 ± 0.17

35

8.56 ± 0.02

120.2 ± 6.1

9.85 ± 0.60

0.90 ± 0.08

15

 

Table 3. Summary of test conditions, cumulative mortality, and standard growth rate (SGR) for 16-d exposures of O.mykiss at two pH and hardness concentrations.

 

 

Aluminum

 

 

 

 

pH

Total Hardness (mg/L)

Total (mg/L)

Dissolved (mg/L)

Cumulative Mortality (%)

SGR (% of initial weight / d)

7.97 ± 0.04

19.9 ± 1.1

<0.01

<0.01

0

1.706 ± 0.242

7.94 ± 0.03

103.8 ± 2.3

<0.01

<0.01

0

1.715 ± 0.349

7.98 ± 0.04

19.9 ± 1.4

0.83 ± 0.14

0.06 ± 0.01

10

1.570 ± 0.148

7.98 ± 0.03

103.5 ± 1.7

0.74 ± 0.07

0.06 ± 0.01

5

1.600 ± 0.173

8.05 ± 0.04

20.6 ± 0.8

1.49 ± 0.15

0.14 ± 0.02

45

1.223 ± 0.156

8.02 ± 0.04

102.1 ± 1.9

1.52 ± 0.25

0.16 ± 0.04

10

0.852 ± 0.264

8.14 ± 0.05

20.3 ± 0.6

3.20 ± 0.22

0.26 ± 0.04

75

0.118 ± 0.515 a

8.10 ± 0.04

103.4 ± 1.3

2.75 ± 0.23

0.28 ± 0.04

45

0.288 ± 0.268 a

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.31 ± 0.02

16.8 ± 2.1

<0.01

<0.01

0

1.486 ± 0.156

7.30 ± 0.02

87.7 ± 2.3

<0.01

<0.01

0

1.522 ± 0.200

7.33 ± 0.02

15.0 ± 1.2

0.89 ± 0.10

0.2 ± 0.00

10

0.088 ± 0.170 a

7.33 ± 0.01

84.8 ± 3.1

0.94 ± 0.06

0.2 ± 0.00

10

0.756 ± 0.079 a

7.35 ± 0.02

16.9 ± 1.4

2.11 ± 0.10

0.2 ± 0.00

15

-0.524 ± 0.286 a

7.33 ± 0.02

85.6 ± 2.6

1.88 ± 0.07

0.3 ± 0.01

0

-0.535 ± 0.286 a

7.34 ± 0.02

16.3 ± 0.9

4.49 ± 0.38

0.2 ± 0.00

15

-0.380 ± 0.195 a

7.32 ± 0.02

84.1 ± 2.2

4.56 ± 0.42

0.3 ± 0.00

10

-0.202 ± 0.282 a

Conclusions:
The 96-hr LC50 for Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to Al in waters of 8.3 with hardness ranging from 10-120 mg/L ranged from 6.17-7.67 mg Al/L and 0.57-0.73 mg dissolved Al/L. There were no mortalities at pH 7.3. The 16-d LC50 for O. mykiss exposed to Al in waters of pH 8.3 with hardness of 20.3 and 103 mg/L were 1.94 and 3.91 mg Al/L, respectively and 0.43 and 0.67 mg dissolved Al/L for hardness of 20.3 and 103 mg/L respectively.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
disregarded due to major methodological deficiencies
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Documentation insufficient for assessment; too few details on methods, exposure conditions, and test animals
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: alum effluent from a drinking water treatment plant
- Molecular formula: Al2(SO4)3
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
Not reported
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
Not reported
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM. 1989. Standard guide for conducting acute toxicity tests with fishes, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians. In Annual book of ASTM standards. Vol.11.04 E-729-88a. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. pp 378-397.
Deviations:
not specified
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- CAS no. from report: 7446-70-0
- Source: Aldrich Chemical Co., Milwaukee, WI
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
Not applicable
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: test solutions were prepared by pipetting appropriate aliquots of stock solution into test vessels
- All other template details: Not reported
Test organisms (species):
Salmo salar
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Atlantic salmon
- Source: Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, East Orono, Maine
- Age at study initiation: alevins
- Feeding during test: none
- All other template details: Not reported

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 2 d
- Acclimation conditions: same as test conditions
- Type and amount of food: fish were not fed
- All other template details: Not reported

QUARANTINE: Not reported
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
8.6 ± 0.3 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
12 ± 1 degree C
pH:
nominal: 6.5
measured: 6.41 ± 0.05
Dissolved oxygen:
Not reported
Salinity:
Not reported
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal (µg/L): 6-8 concentrations between 28 and 4700
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 3.8-L glass jars
- Type (delete if not applicable): open / closed
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 3.8-L glass jars containing 3 L of test solution
- No. of organisms per vessel: 2
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 5
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 5
- All other template details: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: reconstituted dilution water that simulated soft, low-color waters in Maine.
- Chloride: 5.4 ± 0.8 ,g:
- Alkalinity: 1.66-1.69 mg/L as CaCO3
- Ca/mg ratio: 2.8 / 0.4
- Conductivity: 49.5 ± 3.2 µS/cm
- Sulfate: 6.5 ± 0.1 mg/L
- Ammonia: 0.2 ± 0 mg/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: dissolved oxygen was measured at 0,48,96 h of exposure
- All other template details: Not reported

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: pH of the dilution water was measured and adjusted daily in all test vessels using sulfuric acid
- All other template details: Not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality and abnormal behavioral responses recorded each 24 hours

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: geometric
- All other template details: Not reported
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
599 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 0 µg/L Fluoride, 95% CI: 445-772 µg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1 134 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 50 µg/L Fluoride, 95% CI: 843-1444 µg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
716 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 250 µg/L Fluoride, 95% CI: 574-875 µg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
734 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 500 µg/L Fluoride, 95% CI: 588-903 µg/L
Details on results:
- All template details: Not reported
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The moving average angle method or probit method (Peltier and Weber 1985) was used to calculate the LC50 values and 95% confidence intervals.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Not applicable

Conclusions:
The 96-hr LC50 values for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) alevins exposed to aluminum concentrations up to 4,700 µg/L and four fluoride concentrations at pH 6.5 ranged from 599-1134 µg/L.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
Not reported
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Fathead minnows were exposed to aluminium in a flow-through system, which consisted of a 5.1 L aquarium. The 95% turn-over time was 5.8 hours. Acute tests were conducted with 8 week old juvenile fathead minnows averaging 12-16 mm total length. The fish were exposed for 8 days and fed daily.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: aluminum sulfate hexadecahydrate
- Molecular formula: (Al)2(SO4)3 x 16H2O
- Analytical purity: reagent grade
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all concentrations
- Sampling method: samples were taken from aquaria centers daily. Samples were drawn into 15 ml tubes and acidified with 1 drop of 1.0 N HNO3.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not reported
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Concentrated stock solutions were made for each test. Aliquots were diluted to concentrations of the highest toxicant level tested mechanically on each cycle by the diluters
- All other template details: Not reported
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: fathead minnow
- Source: Duluth-Newtown laboratory strain, maintained in the Fisheries Laboratories
- Age at study initiation: 8 week old juveniles
- Length at study initiation: average total length was 12-16 mm
- Feeding during test: fed at maintenance level daily
- All other template details: Not reported

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: at least two days
- Acclimation conditions: same as test conditions
- All other template details: Not reported

QUARANTINE (wild caught): Not applicable
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
8 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
Hard, value not reported
Test temperature:
24.5 degrees C (overall mean)
pH:
7.34 (overall mean)
Dissolved oxygen:
6.88 mg/L (overall mean)
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Range of treatment means: 1.3-51.9 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass aquaria approximately 5.1 L with a stainless steel screen restricting the fish to a 4.1 L volume.
- Aeration: Diluent water was initially heated and oxygenated in a head tank prior to entering the diluter
- Type of flow-through (e.g. peristaltic or proportional diluter): the diluter is a modification of that of Mount and Brungs (1967). The solenoid switch trip bucket was composed of a 250 ml beaker counter-balanced on a fulcrum. The beaker had a drainage hole which regulated the rate at which water drained out. The stock concentration was held in a stoppered marriot bottle.
- Renewal rate of test solution: The diluter was designed to deliver 2 liters of treatment water to each concentration per cycle, with the 95% turnover time in the test chambers of 5.8 hours.
- No. of organisms per vessel: 140
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): Not applicable
- Biomass loading rate: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: well water tapping the Jordan sandstone stratum underlying the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, with iron catalytically removed
- Alkalinity: 233 mg/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: no
- Intervals of water quality measurement: daily from random exposures
- All other template details: Not reported

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS: Not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality recorded daily, with length and weigh measured at day 8

TEST CONCENTRATIONS: Not reported
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
35 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
not specified
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks:
- average of 2 replicates
Remarks on result:
other: range: 33.9-36.1 mg/L
Duration:
192 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
22.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
not specified
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks:
- average of 2 replicates
Remarks on result:
other: range: 19.3-25.5 mg/L
Details on results:
No details reported
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 values were derived by a computer program that calculates LC50 values by four methods. The method that gave the tightest confidence interval was used.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Not applicable

Conclusions:
Fathead minnows exposed to aluminium sulphate for 8 days had an estimated LC50 of 22.4 mg/L, and a 96-hr LC50 of 35.0 mg/L.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
January-February 1996
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
not specified
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: Aluminium hydroxide
- Analytical purity: 99.8%
- Impurities: Na2O, Fe2O3, CaO
- Storage condition of test material: room temperature
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: control and test solution
- Sampling method: sampled during the eluation after 1,2,3,4,7 days and at the start and end of the toxicity test
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: addition of 1 mL of 6 M HNO3 per 100 ml sample
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: 10 g aluminium oxide was added to 100 L of lake water in a 130 L glass aquarium which was aerated vigorously.
- Eluate: after 7 days, the soluble fraction was siphoned out for the toxicity test
- All other template details: Not reported
Test organisms (species):
Salmo trutta
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: brown trout
- Strain: indigenous species to the Lake Maridalsvann
- Source: Oslo Fiskeadminitrasjon settefiskanlegg (fish culture station)
- Age at study initiation: approximately 9 months
- Length at study initiation: 5.7 cm
- Weight at study initiation: 1.8 g
- Feeding during test: not reported

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 2 days
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): same as test
- Type and amount of food: none
- Feeding frequency: none
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): no mortality observed

QUARANTINE (wild caught)
- Duration: not reported
- Health/mortality: none
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
9.4 mg/L
Test temperature:
12.3 - 12.7 degrees C
pH:
7.6 ± 0.2
Dissolved oxygen:
greater than 70% oxygen saturation measured during the test
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 100 mg/L
Measured dissolved Al, average of start and end of test: 72 µg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 36 L glass aquaria
- Aeration: none
- Frequency of water renewal: daily
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- Biomass loading rate: 0.72 g body weight per litre
- All other template details: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: untreated natural lake water (Lake Maridalsvaan)
- Total organic carbon: 2.4 mg/L
- Metals: 30 µg/L reactive Al; 8 µg/L labile Al
- Chlorine: 2.1 mg Cl/L
- Alkalinity: 95 µmol/L
- Ca/mg ratio: 2.6 / 0.47
- Conductivity: 3.1 mS/M
- All other template details: Not reported

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hr light : 8 hr dark
- All other template details: Not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality observed every 24 hours

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: limit test with one exposure concentration
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 70 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: nominal 100 mg/L
Details on results:
- Mortality of control: none
- All other template details: Not reported
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
No mortality observed, no statistics required.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Not applicable

Conclusions:
There were no mortalities observed with the nominal loading of 100 mg/L observed after 96 hours of exposure by Salmo trutta. The mean measured dissolved Al concentration was 70 µg/L.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
January-February 1996
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
not specified
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: Aluminium oxide
- Molecular formula: Al2O3
- Analytical purity: 99.3%
- Impurities: Fe2O3, Na2O, CaO
- Storage condition of test material: room temperature
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: control and test solution
- Sampling method: sampled during the eluation after 1,2,3,4,7 days and at the start and end of the toxicity test
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: addition of 1 mL of 6 M HNO3 per 100 ml sample
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: 10 g aluminium oxide was added to 100 L of lake water in a 130 L glass aquarium which was aerated vigorously.
- Eluate: after 7 days, the soluble fraction was siphoned out for the toxicity test
- All other template details: Not reported
Test organisms (species):
Salmo trutta
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: brown trout
- Strain: indigenous species to the Lake Maridalsvann
- Source: Oslo Fiskeadminitrasjon settefiskanlegg (fish culture station)
- Age at study initiation: approximately 9 months
- Length at study initiation: 5.7 cm
- Weight at study initiation: 1.8 g
- Feeding during test: not reported

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 2 days
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): same as test
- Type and amount of food: none
- Feeding frequency: none
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): no mortality observed

QUARANTINE (wild caught)
- Duration: not reported
- Health/mortality: none
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
9.4 mg/L
Test temperature:
12.3-12.7 degrees C
pH:
7.6 ± 0.2
Dissolved oxygen:
greater than or equal to 70% oxygen saturation measured during the test
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 100 mg/L
Measured dissolved Al, average of start and end of test: 72 µg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 36 L glass aquaria
- Aeration: none
- Frequency of water renewal: daily
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- Biomass loading rate: 0.72 g body weight per litre
- All other template details: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: untreated natural lake water (Lake Maridalsvaan)
- Total organic carbon: 2.4 mg/L
- Metals: 30 µg/L reactive Al; 8 µg/L labile Al
- Chlorine: 2.1 mg Cl/L
- Alkalinity: 95 µmol/L
- Ca/mg ratio: 2.6 / 0.47
- Conductivity: 3.1 mS/M
- All other template details: Not reported

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hr light : 8 hr dark
- All other template details: Not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality observed every 24 hours

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: limit test with one exposure concentration
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 72 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: no mortality observed, 100 mg/L nominal
Details on results:
- Mortality of control: none
- All other template details: Not reported
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not reported
Reported statistics and error estimates:
No mortality observed, no statistics required.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Not applicable

Conclusions:
There were no mortalities observed with the nominal loading of 100 mg/L observed after 96 hours of exposure by Salmo trutta. The mean measured dissolved Al concentration was 72 µg/L.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
January-February 1996
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
not specified
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: Aluminium (metallic)
- Physical state: powder
- Analytical purity: 99.7
- Impurities: Fe, Si
- Storage condition of test material: room temperature
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: test concentration and control
- Sampling method: concentration of aluminium in solution was recorded during the equilibrium after 1,2,3,4,7 days and at the start and end of the toxicity test
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: samples were preserved by addition of 1 mL 6M HNO3 per 100 mL sample
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: 10 g aluminium (metallic) powder was added to 100 L of lake water in a 130 L glass aquarium which was aerated vigorously.
- Eluate: after 7 days, the soluble fraction was siphoned out for the toxicity test
- All other template details: Not reported
Test organisms (species):
Salmo trutta
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: brown trout
- Strain: indigenous species to the Lake Maridalsvann
- Source: Oslo Fiskeadminitrasjon settefiskanlegg (fish culture station)
- Age at study initiation: approximately 9 months
- Length at study initiation: 5.7 cm
- Weight at study initiation: 1.8 g
- Feeding during test: not reported

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 2 days
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): same as test
- Type and amount of food: none
- Feeding frequency: none
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): no mortality observed

QUARANTINE (wild caught)
- Duration: not reported
- Health/mortality: none
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
9.4 mg/L
Test temperature:
12.3 - 12.7 degrees C
pH:
7.6 ± 0.2
Dissolved oxygen:
greater than or equal to 70% oxygen saturation measured during the test
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 100 mg/L
Measured dissolved Al, average of start and end of test: 80 µg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 36 L glass aquaria
- Aeration: none
- Frequency of water renewal: daily
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- Biomass loading rate: 0.72 g body weight per litre
- All other template details: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: untreated natural lake water (Lake Maridalsvaan)
- Total organic carbon: 2.4 mg/L
- Metals: 30 µg/L reactive Al; 8 µg/L labile Al
- Chlorine: 2.1 mg Cl/L
- Alkalinity: 95 µmol/L
- Ca/mg ratio: 2.6 / 0.47
- Conductivity: 3.1 mS/M
- All other template details: Not reported

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: not reported
- Photoperiod: 16 hr light : 8 hr dark
- Light intensity: not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality observed every 24 hours

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: limit test with one exposure concentration
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 80 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: nominal 100 mg/L
Details on results:
- Mortality of control: none
- All other template details: Not reported
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
No mortality observed, no statistics required.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

STUDY RATED BY AN INDEPENDENT REVIEWER

No article abstract available.

Conclusions:
There were no mortalities observed with the nominal loading of 100 mg/L observed after 96 hours of exposure by Salmo trutta. The mean measured dissolved Al concentration was 80 µg/L.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
December 2008
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP comparable to guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM 2000. Standard guide for conducting acute toxicity tests on test materials with fishes, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians. E729-96.
Deviations:
not specified
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Analytical purity: 99.1%
- Lot/batch No.: 46192708
- Source: EMD Chemicals, Gibbstown, NJ, USA
- Storage condition of test material: stored at room temperature after receipt at the laboratory
- All other template details: Not reported
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: All test concentrations
- Sampling method: Not reported
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: preserved with nitric acid (trace metal grade) to pH < 2 prior to analysis
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
- Method: each test concentration was prepared from a stock solution added to MOPS buffered laboratory reconstituted water. The test concentrations were adjusted to pH of 8.0 using 10M NaOH and/or 1M HCl, mixed thoroughly and allowed to sit undisturbed for 3 hours at test temperature. After the equilibration period, each test treatment was divided in half to used as the unfiltered and filtered test solutions.
- Controls: dilution water control
- Evidence of undissolved material: A visual precipitate was observed in test chambers for all of the concentrations spiked with Al stock
- All other template details: Not applicable
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: fathead minnow
- Source: laboratory in-house culture
- Age at study initiation: 8 days old
- Feeding during test
- Food type: concentrated suspension of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii
- Amount: 2.0 mL per chamber
- Frequency: once, 2 hours before the 48-hr test solution renewal
- All other template details: Not reported

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 4 days
- Acclimation conditions: same as test
- All other template details: Not reported

QUARANTINE : Not applicable
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
Nominal: 50 mg/L as CaCO3
Measured unfiltered Al control water (mg/L as CaCO3): 48
Measured filtered Al control water (mg/L as CaCO3): 56
Test temperature:
25 ± 2 degrees C
pH:
Nominal: 8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
above 60% saturation levels, ranged from 5.9-8.9 mg/L
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal (µg/L): control, 18750, 37500, 75000, 150000, 300000
Measured: See Table 3-4
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 1-L plastic beaker
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 1-L plastic beaker (Polypropylene, Fisher Brand, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) filled with 250 mL of test solution
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): replaced once at 48 hrs
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4
- All other template details: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS (measured for unfiltered, filtered controls waters)
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution and control waters in the testing consisted of a soft standard synthetic freshwater using reagent grade salts (CaSO4, MgSO4, KCl, and NaHCO3; USEPA 2002).
- Dissolved organic carbon: 319, 326 mg/L
- Chlorine: <0.05,<0.05 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 40 mg/L nominal, 192, 188 mg/L as CaCO3 measured
- Ca/mg ratio: 12.4/4.24, 11.9/4.08
- Conductivity: 393,395 μS/cm
- Intervals of water quality measurement: test initiation, daily
- See Table 3-1 for all measured parameters

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: before test initiation, solution was adjusted to at pH of 8.0 using 10M NaOH and/or 1M HCl
- Photoperiod: 16 hr light : 8 hr dark
- Light intensity: cool-white fluorescent bulbs

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality observed daily

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 0-100 mg/L nominal Al
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: effects on survival at highest concentration
- All other template details: Not reported
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 218 644.1 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: unfiltered test
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
37 196.9 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: unfiltered test
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
72 890 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: unfiltered test
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 561.22 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: unfiltered test
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 949.4 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: filtered test, no effect at highest concentration
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 638.1 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: filtered test, no effect at highest concentration
Details on results:
- Mortality of control: control survival ranged from 90-100%
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: a visual precipitate was observed in test chambers for all of the test concentrations
- All other template details: Not reported
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not reported
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Differences in survival at test termination were evaluated using a statistical computer package (CETIS, Tidepool Scientific Software, McKinleyville, CA, USA). If the data met the assumptions of normality and homogeneity, the NOEC and LOEC were estimated using an analysis of variance (Dunnett's Multiple Comparison) to compare (p≤0.05) organism performance in the experimental treatments with that observed in the control. The LC50 was estimated using a Linear Interpolation Method.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Table 3-7. Summary of Biological and Analytical Results

Unfiltered Aluminium Toxicity Test

Nominal (μg/L Al)

Measured Average Total Al (μg/L Al)

% Survival

0 (Control)

< 30

100 ± 0

18750

18815.0

85 ± 13

37500

37196.9

90 ± 14

75000

72890.0

80 ± 14 *

150000

133509.2

75 ± 6 *

300000

218644.1

56 ± 11 *

Filtered Aluminium Toxicity Test

0 (Control)

< 30

98 ± 5

18750

533.8

100 ± 0

37500

954.9

100 ± 0

75000

654.6

93 ± 10

150000

1140.4

95 ± 6

300000

1949.4

98 ± 5

* Significantly less than the control (p=0.05).

Conclusions:
The 96 hr LC50 for P.promelas exposed to Al as AlCl3 in unfiltered water was greater than the highest measured concentration tested, 218644.1 µg/L total Al. The NOEC and LOEC in the unfiltered water was 37196.9 and 72890.0 µg/L, respectively. There was no relationship between the amount of dissolved Al and fish mortality. There were no effects on P.promelas survival after 96 hrs in the filtered toxicity test at the highest measured concentration tested 1949.4 µg/L.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
Not reported
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Fish were exposed under flow-through conditions to solutions containing 5 concentrations of inorganic Al (Al–RSW) for 96 hours at pH 5.0. Basin volumes and flow rates were adjusted to ensure .99% molecular replacement of the basin volume (7 or 8 L) within 24 h. Mortality was observed for a calculation of an LC50.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Molecular formula: Al2(SO4)3 x 18H2O
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all test concentrations and control
- Sampling method: samples taken daily using acid-washed pasticware
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: samples for analysis of total Al were acidified to pH 1.0 with concentrated trace-metal-grade HNO3 and were left at room temperature for at least 24 h before spectrophotometric analysis
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Controls: RSW water
- All other template details: Not reported
Test organisms (species):
Salmo salar
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Atlantic salmon
- Source: provincial fish hatchery (Ministe`re de Loisir, Chasse et Peˆche, Gaspe´, QC, Canada) and from a commercial aquaculture establishment (La Pisciculture Saukeb, Nouvelle, Gaspe´, QC, Canada). The stocks of salmon originated from rivers of the Gaspe´ (MLCP) and North Shore (La Pisciculture Saukeb) regions of Que´bec.
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): juvenile
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): average wet weight 1.8 ± 0.8 g
- All other template details: Not reported

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: at least 2 weeks
- Acclimation conditions: same as test
- Type and amount of food: trout chow pellets ad libitum
- Feeding frequency: fish were not fed for 24 hours prior to an experiment
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): not reported

QUARANTINE (wild caught): Not reported
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
Not reported
Test temperature:
10 degrees C
pH:
Nominal: 5.0
Measured: 4.96 ± 0.06, n=54
Dissolved oxygen:
> 85% saturation
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Measured (μM): 0.4 (control), 1.1 ± 0.1, 2.2 ± 0.1, 3.4 ± 0.1, 3.2 ± 0.1, 3.9 ± 0.1
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 7 or 8 L tanks
- Renewal rate of test solution (flow rate):>99% molecular replacement of the basin volume (7 L) within 24 hr
- No. of organisms per vessel: 7
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4
- All other template details: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: RSW was prepared by the addition of salts to deionized water
- Total organic carbon: 1-3 mg C/L
- All other template details: Not reported

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 12 hr light : 12 hr dark
- All other template details: Not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality observed every 3 hours during the day and 7 hours at night

TEST CONCENTRATIONS: not reported
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
2.9 µmol/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 2.5-3.2 µmol/L: RSW experiment
Details on results:
Not reported
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The LC50 values and their 95% confidence limits were determined using the Spearman–Karber method.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Not applicable

Conclusions:
The 96 hr LC50 for Salmo salar exposed to Al in solution was 2.9 µM Al.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Adequacy of study:
disregarded due to major methodological deficiencies
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Significant methodological deficiencies: only one exposure concentration tested
Test organisms (species):
Salmo trutta
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Remarks:
Summary of available data used for the endpoint assessment of the target substance
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Justification for type of information:
Refer to analogue justification provided in IUCLID section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.1 - ca. 200 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Al
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
The upper limit was actually >200 mg/L

Description of key information

Ten different studies reported reliable (K1, K2) acute toxicity data to freshwater fish, covering seven different species: Ictalurus punctatus, Lepomis cyanellus, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Perca flavescens, Pimephales promelas, Salmo salar and Salmo trutta. Each of these studies used the soluble AlCl3as test substance. Effect levels were expressed as mg Al/L (total, dissolved), but the interpretation of reported effect levels is not straightforward due to the complex speciation properties of Al and its low solubility. All of these reliable data are used in a weight of evidence approach to cover this endpoint. Literature studies investigating the effects of aluminum in the aquatic environment have extensively used test solutions with aluminum concentrations above that of its solubility limit. Results of these studies are therefore limited for the investigation of intrinsic toxicity. Expressed as mg Al/L, the reported 96h-LC50s were typically situated between 0.1 and >200 mg/L. 16-d LC50s ranged from 0.43 to 3.91 mg Al/L. Acute NOECs (96h) varied from > 0.07 to > 50 mg Al/L.

The Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) reported unbounded effect levels for a number of insoluble Al-salts (Al-metal, Aluminium oxide, Aluminium hydroxide); it should be noted that the difference between nominal/total concentration and measured dissolved concentration was approximately three orders of magnitude.

For a detailed overview of the data, more information is provided in the Background document "Environmental Effects Assessment of Aluminium" attached to IUCLID section 13.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Many “acute” toxicity studies (i.e. <12 days) have been conducted with fish in acidic soft waters due to concern about aluminium leaching in environments sensitive to acid rain. Many of these experiments were conducted in flow-through systems to mimic the effects of mixing zones where some type of substance (i.e. lime) is added to increase the system pH. In the cases where effects due to transient forms of aluminium were investigated (i.e. Teien et al. 2004, 2006), fish were maintained in certain sections of a raceway, with a specified time of equilibration, or time after mixing. Most of the existing literature for fish focused on effects to Salmo salar since it is among the most sensitive fish species. Roy and Campbell (1997) showed that dissolved organic matter had a protective effect against aluminium toxicity to S. salar. Gundersen et al. 1994 suggested just a minor effect of humic acid on aluminium toxicity with the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. It is possible that in some of the flow-through studies, aluminium toxicity is due to transient forms of aluminium, because transient forms may be present for the first several minutes after mixing in the flow-through diluter mixing chambers.

 

While there are many studies that have investigated the toxicity of aluminium to fish, relatively few evaluated aluminium toxicity over a range of pH values. Roy and Campbell (1995) demonstrated that aluminium toxicity, on the basis of monomeric aluminium, decreased (less toxic) as pH decreased from 5.3 to 4.4. At weakly alkaline pH (i.e. pH 7.58 to 8.14), Gundersen et al. (1994) demonstrated very little effect of pH or hardness on aluminium toxicity to O. mykiss over higher pH ranges. Studies conducted at NIVA show the effect of pH and other characteristics on survival at 190 hours; the results also demonstrate the effect of mixing time on mortality. From the literature, there were minimal studies that investigated the effect of water hardness on aluminium toxicity to fish. 

A detailed rationale and justification for the analogue read-across approach is provided in the technical dossier (see IUCLID section 13.2).