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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

The study with the lowest Klimisch score, i.e. Dill et al. 1977, klimisch score 2, was identified as key study. In this study on fresh water fish, a LC50 of 107.9 mg/l (95%  confidence interval: 84.6-117.4  ) was determined. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
107.9 mg/L

Additional information

The study with the lowest Klimisch score, i.e. Dill et al. 1977, Klimisch score 2, was identified as key study. In this study on fresh water fish, a LC50 of 107.9 mg/l (95% confidence interval: 84.6-117.4 ) was determined.

This result is in line with that of other, less reliable acute studies on freshwater and saltwater fish. 

Two other studies were identified assessing the toxicity of 1,1 -dichloroethene in freshwater fish. The study of Buccafusco et al. (1981) was conducted on Lepomis macrochirus in a static test performed according to US EPA Guideline EPA-660/3-75-009 (1975) but without verification of the tested concentrations and of the efficiency of the test system. In addition, the O2 concentration was reported to be 0.3 mg/L at the end of experiments. The LC50 (24 and 96 h) was determined to be 74 mg/L. The study of Dawson et al. (1977) was also conducted on Lepomis macrochirus in a static test system. Aeration of water and results were expressed in terms of nominal concentrations. The procedure is considered unsuitable for a volatile compound. Various other methodological deficiencies were found. The LC50 (96 h) in this study was 220 mg/L.

 Two studies were identified assessing the toxicity of 1,1-dichloroethylene on saltwater fish.

The study of Dawson et al. (1977) was conducted on Menidia beryllina in a static test system. Aeration of water and results were expressed in terms of nominal concentrations. The procedure is considered unsuitable for a volatile compound. Various other methodological deficiencies were found. The LC50 (96 h) in this study was 250 mg/L. The study of Heitmuller et al. (1981) was conducted on Cyprinodon variegatus in a static test performed according to US EPA Guideline EPA-660/3-75-009 but without verification of the tested concentrations. Results were expressed in terms of nominal concentrations. The procedure is considered unsuitable for a volatile compound. The dissolved oxygen concentrations were not reported. The LC50 (96 h) in this study was 250 mg/L, the NOEC (96 h) was 80 mg/L.