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Guidance on Safe Use

Guidance on Safe Use

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First-aid measures

1. Preamble1.1. Indications on Safety Data Sheets (SDS) for the professional user about guidance on safe use of petroleum products, in all its aspects, should take into account that applicable legislation and general accepted practices for the management of industrial routine activities or emergencies, as well as company operating procedures, already compose a background which indicates which general actions are necessary/mandatory, advisable or unadvisable in such cases. An extensive recapitulation of all this background information will not necessarily add information value to a SDS, and may actually decrease the readability of the document, especially in an emergency.Therefore the indications meant for actual inclusion in SDSs can be focused (although not necessarily limited) to:- Product specific issues (i.e. special hazards or characteristics)- Key Actions (or group of actions) that are applicable in the specific case1.2. The actual level of detail of information and its phrasing in individual SDSs may reflect local or national conventions or requirements, or company policies, but without infringing on the consistency with the information submitted hereunder. Also, more stringent national or local legal requirements or conventions will take precedence over the guidance provided in this document2. Warning before intervention2.1. Solid sulfur is flammable. Burning sulfur emits toxic and suffocating sulfur dioxide (SO2) 2.2. Finely dispersed particles form explosive mixtures in air2.3. Liquid sulphur may evolve sulphur dioxide (SO2) and toxic and flammable hydrogen sulphide (H2S)2.4. Liquid sulfur can cause thermal burns.3. Inhalation3.1. Symptoms: irritation of the upper respiratory tract3.2. In case of symptoms arising from inhalation of sulfur dust: Remove casualty to a quiet and well ventilated place if safe to do so3.3. If casualty is unconscious and:- Not breathing – ensure that there is no obstruction to breathing and give artificial respiration by trained personnel. If necessary, give external cardiac massage and obtain medical assistance.- Breathing –place in the recovery position. Administer oxygen if necessary. Obtain medical assistance if breathing remains difficult.3.4. Obtain medical assistance if breathing remains difficult.3.5. If there is any suspicion of inhalation of SO2 or H2S:- Rescuers must wear breathing apparatus, belt and safety rope, and follow rescue procedures.- Remove casualty to fresh air as quickly as possible.- Immediately begin artificial respiration if breathing has ceased.- Provision of oxygen may help.- Obtain medical advice for further treatment.4. Skin Contact4.1. Symptoms: (product at ambient temperature): irritation. May cause burn in case of contact with product at high temperature4.2. Remove contaminated clothing and footwear and dispose of safely.4.3. Wash affected area with soap and water. Seek medical attention if skin irritation, swelling or redness occurs4.4. For minor thermal burns: Cool the burn. Hold the burned area under cold running water for at least five minutes, or until the pain subsides. However, body hypothermia must be avoided.4.5. Do not put ice on the burn; Remove non-sticking garments carefully. DO NOT attempt to remove portions of clothing glued to burnt skin but cut round them. 4.6. Seek medical attention in all cases of serious burns 5. Eye Contact5.1. Symptoms: (product at ambient temperature): irritation. May cause burn in case of contact with product at high temperature5.2. Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do so. Continue rinsing.5.3. If dust particles remain in the eye, do not rub the eye as mechanical abrasion due to the dust may damage the cornea5.4. If irritation, blurred vision or swelling occurs and persists, obtain medical advice from a specialist5.5. If hot product is splashed into the eye, it should be cooled immediately to dissipate heat, under cold running water. Immediately obtain specialist medical assessment and treatment for the casualty.6. Ingestion6.1. Symptoms: light laxative effect6.2. Do not induce vomiting. Ask for medical assistance.

Fire-fighting measures

1. Product specific hazards and other issues1.1. Dust clouds may present an explosion hazard. They may be ignited by heat, sparks, static electricity or flames.1.2. The flames generated by the burning product are short, dark blue colored at night and invisible in the daylight, with the exception of the fume and the heat. The burning material acquires a dark red-black colour.2. Extinguishing Media - Foam (Specifically trained personnel only)- Water fog (Specifically trained personnel only)- Dry chemical powder- Carbon dioxide- Other inert gases (subject to regulations)- Sand or earth3. Unsuitable Extinguishing Media3.1. Do not use direct water jets on the burning product; they could cause a steam explosion and spread of the fire.3.2. Simultaneous use of foam and water on the same surface is to be avoided as water destroys the foam.4. Combustion Products4.1. Combustion products include sulphur oxides ( SO2 and SO3 ) and Hydrogen sulphide H2S.5. Protective Equipment for Firefighters5.1. In case of a large fire or in confined or poorly ventilated spaces wear full fire resistant protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with a full face-piece operated in positive pressure mode.

Accidental release measures

1. Product-specific hazards and other issues: 1.1. Spillages of product in dust form may create a fire hazard and an explosive atmosphere.2. General information2.1. Stop or contain leak at the source, if safe to do so. Avoid direct contact with released material. Stay upwind. In case of large spillages, alert occupants in downwind areas.2.2. Keep non-involved personnel away from the area of spillage. Alert emergency personnel. Except in case of small spillages, the feasibility of any actions should always be assessed and advised, if possible, by a trained, competent person in charge of managing the emergency.2.3. Eliminate sources of ignition, if safe to do so (e.g. electricity, flares, fires, sparks).2.4. Prevent generation and spreading of dust2.5. When the presence of dangerous amounts of SO2 or H2S around the spilled product is suspected or proved, additional or special actions may be warranted, including access restrictions, use of special protection equipment, procedures and personnel training.2.6. If required, notify relevant authorities according to applicable regulations. 3. Personal protection equipments for emergency responders3.1. Small spillages: normal antistatic working clothes are usually adequate. Large spillages: full body suit of chemically resistant and antistatic material.3.2. Work gloves providing adequate chemical resistance. Note: gloves made of PVA are not water-resistant, and are not suitable for emergency use.3.3. Work helmet. Antistatic non-skid safety shoes or boots.3.4. Closed goggles. Face shield, if contact of hot product or vapours with eyes is possible or anticipated.3.5. If contact with molten product is possible or anticipated, all PPE items should be heat-resistant and thermally insulated.3.6. Respiratory protection: a half mask with dust filter, a full face respirator with filter(s) for organic vapours/ SO2/H2S, or a Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) can be used according to the extent of spill and predictable amount of exposure. If the situation cannot be completely assessed, or if an oxygen deficiency is possible, only SCBA’s should be used.4. Land spillage4.1. Leaks and spillages may consist of molten hot material, with risk of severe burns.4.2. Prevent product from entering sewers, rivers or other bodies of water. Note: solidified product may clog drains and sewers.4.3. If necessary dike the molten product with earth, sand or similar non-combustible materials.4.4. Let molten material cool naturally. If necessary, cautiously use water fog to help the cooling. Do not play direct jets of foam or water on the spilled molten product, as this may cause splattering4.5. When inside buildings or confined spaces ensure adequate ventilation4.6. Collect free product with suitable mechanical means. Transfer collected product and other contaminated materials to suitable containers for recycle, recovery or safe disposal.5. Spillages in water or at sea5.1. In case of spillages in the water, the product will cool down rapidly and become solid. The product in solid form is heavier than water, and normally no intervention will be possible. Fine dust may momentarily float. If possible, control the spreading of the spillage, and collect the solid product by skimming or other suitable mechanical means.5.2. Do not use solvents or dispersants, unless specifically advised by an expert, and, if required, approved by local authorities.5.3. Collect recovered product and other materials in suitable tanks or containers for recovery or safe disposal6. Additional information6.1. Note: recommended measures are based on the most likely spillage scenarios for this material; however, local conditions (wind, air temperature, wave/current direction and speed) may significantly influence the choice of appropriate actions. For this reason, local experts should be consulted when necessary. Local regulations may also prescribe or limit actions to be taken.6.2. In those cases when the presence of dangerous amounts of SO2 or H2S around the spilled product is suspected or proved, additional or special actions may be warranted, including access restrictions, use of special equipment for detection and personal protection, procedures and personnel training.6.3. Spillages of limited amounts of products, especially in the open air when vapours will be usually quickly dispersed, are dynamic situations, which are unlikely to entail exposure to dangerous concentrations of SO2 or H2S. As these gases have a density greater than ambient air, a possible exception may regard the build-up of dangerous concentrations in specific spots, like trenches, depressions or confined spaces. In all these circumstances, however, the correct actions should be assessed on a case-by-case basis.

Handling and storage

1. General Information1.1. Risk of explosive mixtures of dusts and air. Ensure that all relevant regulations regarding explosive atmospheres, and handling and storage facilities of flammable products, are followed1.2. Keep away from sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. – No smoking.1.3. A specific assessment of inhalation risks from the presence of Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and/or hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in tank headspaces, confined spaces, product residue, tank waste and waste water, and unintentional releases must be made to help determine controls appropriate to local circumstances.1.4. Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area1.5. Avoid contact with the product, namely when in the molten form. 1.6. Avoid release to the environment.2. Handling2.1. Take precautionary measures against static electricity.2.2. Ground/bond container and receiving equipment2.3. Avoid splash filling of bulk volumes when handling hot liquid product2.4. Transfer equipment must be designed in a manner that minimizes the airborne dust. 2.5. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Do not breathe dusts/vapours of hot product.2.6. Use personal protective equipment as required.2.7. For more information regarding protective equipment and operational conditions see exposure scenarios.3. Storage3.1. Storage area layout, tank design, equipment and operating procedures must comply with the relevant European, national or local legislation. 3.2. Concentrations of SO2 and/or H2S in silos, pits or tanks can reach hazardous values in case of prolonged storage, particularly where the sulphur is molten or recently solidified from the molten state. 3.3. Cleaning, inspection and maintenance of internal structure of storage equipments must be done only by properly equipped and qualified personnel as defined by national, local or company regulations.3.4. Before entering storage tanks and commencing any operation in a confined area, check the atmosphere for oxygen content,SO2,H2S and flammability. 3.5. Store separately from oxidising agents.4. Recommended and Unsuitable Materials for Storage4.1. Recommended materials: Liquid sulphur: carbon steel and concrete. Solid sulphur: carbon steel Acid-resistant internal coating is recommended for containments and storage spaces. Hulls of sea carriers for the transport of solid sulphur should be either coated or lime washed.Compatibility should be checked with the manufacturer4.2. Unsuitable materials: Some synthetic materials may be unsuitable for containers or container linings depending on the material specification and intended use. Compatibility should be checked with the manufacturer.5. Container AdviceIf the product is supplied in containers:5.1. Keep only in the original container, or in an suitable container for this kind of product. 5.2. Keep containers tightly closed and properly labelled.5.3. Empty containers may contain combustible product residues. Do not weld, solder, drill, cut or incinerate empty containers, unless they have been properly cleaned. 5.4. Harmful concentrations of SO2 and/or H2S may also arise especially in case of prolonged storage of heated product.6. Hygiene measures6.1. Ensure that proper housekeeping measures are in place.6.2. Contaminated materials should not be allowed to accumulate in the workplaces and should never be kept inside pockets.6.3. Keep away from food and beverages6.4. Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product6.5. Wash the hands thoroughly after handling6.6. Change contaminated clothes at the end of working shift.

Transport information

Land transport (ADR/RID)

UN number:
UN 2448. See Additional transport information 01.UN 1350. See Additional transport information 02.Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport. See Additional transport information 03.
Proper shipping name and description:
SULPHUR, MOLTEN. See Additional transport information 01.SULPHUR. See Additional transport information 02.Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport. See Additional transport information 03.
Chemical name:
NoneNoneNot applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Language:
English
Class:
4.1 Flammable solid 4.1 Flammable solid Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Classification code:
F3F3Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Packaging group:
IIIIIINot applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Labels:
4.1 Flammable solid. See Additional transport information 04.4.1 Flammable solid Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Remarks:
Hazard identification number (HIN) 44, UK Emergency action code (EAC) 1Y. Tunnel restriction code: E (Note: ADR requirement only).Hazard identification number (HIN) 40, UK Emergency action code (EAC) 1Z. Tunnel restriction code: E (Note: ADR requirement only).None.

Inland waterway transport (ADN(R))

UN number:
UN 2448. See Additional transport information 01, 06.UN 1350. See Additional transport information 02, 06.Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport. See Additional transport information 03, 06.
Proper shipping name and description:
SULPHUR, MOLTEN. See Additional transport information 01.SULPHUR. See Additional transport information 02.Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport. See Additional transport information 03.
Chemical name:
None.None.Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Language:
English
Class:
4.1 Flammable solid 4.1 Flammable solid Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Classification code:
F3F3Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Packaging group:
IIIIIINot applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Labels:
4.1 Flammable solid. See Additional transport information 04.4.1 Flammable solidNot applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Remarks
None.None.Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.

Marine transport (IMDG)

UN number:
UN 2448. See Additional transport information 01.UN 1350. See Additional transport information 02, 07.Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport. See Additional transport information 03.
Proper shipping name and description:
SULPHUR, MOLTEN. See Additional transport information 01.SULPHUR. See Additional transport information 02.Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport. See Additional transport information 03.
Chemical name:
None.None.Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Class:
4.1 Flammable solid4.1 Flammable solidNot applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Packaging group:
IIIIIINot applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
EmS code:
F-A, S-HF-A, S-G Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Labels:
4.1 Flammable solid. See Additional transport information 04.4.1 Flammable solidNot applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Remarks
NoneNoneNone

Air transport ICAO/IATA

UN number:
UN 2448. See Additional transport information 01. The substance is forbidden on cargo aircraft. The substance is forbidden on passenger and cargo aircraft. See Additional transport information 05.UN 1350. See Additional transport information 02.Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport. See Additional transport information 03.
Proper shipping name and description:
SULPHUR, MOLTEN. See Additional transport information 01. The substance is forbidden on cargo aircraft. The substance is forbidden on passenger and cargo aircraft. See Additional transport information 05.SULPHUR. See Additional transport information 02.Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.. See Additional transport information 03
Chemical name:
None. The substance is forbidden on cargo aircraft. The substance is forbidden on passenger and cargo aircraft. See Additional transport information 05.None.Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Class:
4.1 Flammable solid. The substance is forbidden on cargo aircraft. The substance is forbidden on passenger and cargo aircraft. See Additional transport information 05.4.1 Flammable solid. Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Packaging group:
III. The substance is forbidden on cargo aircraft. The substance is forbidden on passenger and cargo aircraft. See Additional transport information 05.III.Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Labels:
4.1 Flammable solid. See Additional transport information 04. The substance is forbidden on cargo aircraft. The substance is forbidden on passenger and cargo aircraft. See Additional transport information 05.4.1 Flammable solid. Not applicable. Not classified as dangerous for transport.
Remarks
NoneNoneNone

Additional transport information

Additional transport information
Preamble0.1The transportation of dangerous goods (by land, water or air) is a specialized professional field. Dangerous goods transport is regulated by an extensive body of recommendations, regulations, rules and agreements to ensure an adequate and harmonised level of safety for man and environment. Whereas some of these requirements have been adopted as European Union legislation (see reference), others are legally binding international treaties or sector agreements. They cover all the relevant technical aspects involved in the transport of dangerous goods (e.g. choice of equipment, labelling, documentation, packaging design, testing procedures, operating procedures etc.).0.2In addition to legal obligations discussed in the previous paragraph, Member states will also have in place detailed binding regulations governing the general conduct of transport activities, including licensing and inspection of vehicles, the authorization of drivers and other personnel, and issues relating to the rules of the road. There may also be specific national exceptions and requirements. 0.3The legal framework and its accompanying detailed provisions will specify which actions are necessary/mandatory, advisable or forbidden. Extensive repetition of this background information is not practicable in a safety data sheet, and could make the document too long and difficult to read and understand, especially in an emergency when clear, brief information is needed.0.4 The consideration of this background information enables the content of the safety data sheet to be concentrated on the identification of a product's proper shipping name and its hazard classification. Where it is relevant, other information may be added. This information will act as key for the professional for retrieving the necessary specific information in the relevant body of transport codes, rules and regulations.0.5Substances in this category may be classified differently. Factors affecting classification include composition, closed flash point, initial boiling point and aquatic toxicity. The differences are explained in additional transport information paragraphs that have been numbered. Additional transport information 01Sulphur is transported both as a solid in bulk and as a liquid in the molten form. Each physical form has its own transport classification. Proper shipping name UN 2448 SULPHUR, MOLTEN applies to the transport of molten sulphur. Additional transport information 02Sulphur is transported both as a solid in bulk and as a liquid in the molten form. Each physical form has its own transport classification. Proper shipping name UN 1350 SULPHUR applies to the transport of sulphur in the solid state. Additional transport information 03Sulphur is transported both as a solid in bulk and as a liquid in the molten form. Each physical form has its own transport classification. Special provision 242 in the dangerous goods list applies to the entry for UN 1350 SULPHUR. Sulphur is not subject to transport regulations when it has been formed to a specific shape (e.g. prills, granules, pellets, pastilles or flakes).Additional transport information 04When it is listed, special provision 580 in the dangerous goods list requires the use of an elevated temperature mark for liquids transported at a temperature of 100°C or more. Special provision 580 is not listed for UN 2448 SULPHUR, MOLTEN.Additional transport information 05Because of its high temperature, molten sulphur is forbidden on cargo aircraft. It is also forbidden on aircraft carrying passengers and cargo.Additional transport information 06ADNR will only apply until end 2010 and from 1.1.2011 ADN annexed regulations (ADN 2011) will entry into force also on the Rhine. Additional transport information 07The IMSBC Code may be applied from 1 January 2009 on a voluntary basis. The, official entry into force is on 1 January 2011, from which date it will be mandatory under the provision of the SOLAS Convention.

Exposure controls / personal protection

Note: In this case the information in heading 8 is not required, according to Art. 14 (1) and (2), and Annex VI, Sect. 5.6 of the Regulation.(If applicable, substance registered as an isolated or transported intermediate). Please refer to the assessment report on Risk Management Measures in Section 13 which provides the required information on Strictly Controlled Conditions for the registration of this isolated/transported intermediate.

Stability and reactivity

Disposal considerations