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EC number: 212-454-9
CAS number: 818-61-1
2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate is corrosive to skin
and eyes. 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate may be irritating to the respiratory
Mean erythema score
after 24, 48 and 72 h:
+ necrotic, anemic
necrosis, extending beyond the area of application
** soft grey necrosis,
anemic, extending beyond the area of application
*** centre: soft
anemic necrosis, surrounding area: parchment-like to leathery necrosis
n.a.: not assessable
Mean edema score
after 24, 48 and 72 h:
n.a.: not assessable
Findings at test
hard relocatable necrosis (full-thickness necrosis)
leathery red-brown necrosis, extending beyond area of application
authors assessed the test material as being severly irritating.
The undiluted material is moderately to
severely irritating to the skin. Short contacts of a few minutes would
likely result in no injury but prolonged contacts for an hour or more
would be expected to produce skin redness, considerable swelling and
probably a burn. The material is rapidly absorbed through intact skin.
Short contact with relatively small amounts of material might be
absorbed and produce systemic injury or even death.
Mean scores after
24, and 48 h*:
*72 hrs-scores were
missing in the raw data.
Nictitating membrane white
HEA reacts very rapidly with eye tissue. The
undiluted material caused extensive injury to the eye. 10 % aqueous
solution is only slightly irritating to the eye.
Under the conditions of the study, 2
-hydroxyethyl acyrlate was a severe eye irritant causing serious eye
Under the conditions of the study, the test
compound caused severe eye irritation, Grade 9.
demonstrated that undiluted 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate is severely
irritating and potentially corrosive to skin. The two most reliable
studies are summarized below.
acrylate was applied to the skin of rabbits with an occlusive covering
for one minute, 5 minutes, 15 minutes and 20 hours. After 24 hours,
slight to moderate erythema and edema were observed in nearly all
exposure groups except the one-minute exposure group. Mean erythema
scores (24-48-72 hours) for the 15-min exposure were 2.0 and 2.0,
respectively. Mean edema scores (24-48-72 hours) for the 15-min exposure
were 0 and 0.7, respectively. Edema was not fully reversible within 8
day. At test termination eight days after the applications, desquamation
and necrosis were observed for the 5- and 15 -minute applications. The
20-hour application caused full-thickness necrosis in both rabbits, in
one animal extending beyond the area of application (BASF, 1974).
In another study (Dow
Chem. Co., 1980), the abdominal skin of two New Zealand White rabbits
was shaved and 0.5 ml of the substance undiluted or as a 10% solution
was placed under a cotton pad on four skin areas. The undiluted HEA
produced slight erythema and moderate edema after 15 minutes and 1 hour
exposure. After 4 and 6 hours of exposure moderate erythema, severe
edema and slight (4 h) and moderate (6 h) necrosis were observed,
respectively. Treatment with the 10 % solution for 15 minutes did not
produce skin irritation. Treatment with the 10 % solution for 1 or 3
hours produced slight erythema, and /or edema. The 6-hour treatment with
a 10% solution produced moderate redness, swelling and slight necrosis
which healed with a scab after 9 days.
Undiluted HEA was a
severe irritant to rabbit skin and direct contact for 20 hours was
corrosive to the skin. Dermal contact with undiluted HEA for times up to
and including 4 hours produced severe, but reversible irritation with no
corrosive effect in rabbits. Direct contact with undiluted HEA for 6
hours produced irritation and tissue damage with evidence for recovery.
Thus, HEA was assessed to be severely irritating to the skin (OECD SIDS,
2006). However, according to current EU regulations 2-hydroxyethyl
acrylate is labelled with R34, corrosive (Annex I of Directive
67/548/EEC) and classified in Skin Corrosion Category 1B (Table 3.1 of
the REGULATION (EC) No 1272/2008), respectively.
Several studies have
shown that undiluted 2-hydroxyethyl
severely irritating and can cause serious damage to the eye.
2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (0.05 mL) was instilled into one eye of two
rabbits. The adjacent eyes were treated with saline and served as
control. The eyes were not washed out after 24 hours as specified in
OECD Guideline 405. Mean scores for cornea, iris, conjunctivae and
chemosis (24-48 hours) were 2.25, 0, 1.75, and 1.5, respectively. After
8 days the cornea showed moderate to severe opacity (mean score 2.5). In
addition, slight iritis (score 1 in one animal) and slight to moderate
lesions of the conjunctivae were noticeable (mean score 1.5). At test
termination, staphyloma and white discolouration of the nictitating
membrane were present in one rabbit (BASF, 1974).
In another study HEA
was instilled in undiluted form and as a 10 % aqueous solution directly
into the conjunctival sacs of New Zealand Albino rabbits. Within about
30 seconds of treatment one eye of each animal was washed with flowing
water, while the other treated eye was left unwashed (Dow Chem. Co.,
1980). One hour after instillation of the undiluted material, the
unwashed and the washed eye displayed inflammed conjunctival membranes,
corneal opacity over 50 % of the eye, and on staining with fluorescein
dye shallow lesions over 50 % of the eye. At
the 24 hrs reading the conjunctivitis was more severe, the cornea
unchanged, and iritis was observed. These responses were essentially
unchanged at the 48-hrs and 7-day readings. Instillation of the 10 %
aqueous solution of HEA caused slight conjunctival membrane irritation
which persisted in the unwashed eye through the 48 hrs reading. The
washed eye was without signs of irritation one hour post-instillation.
Carbide Corporation (1966) also reported that a single instillation of
0.005 mL of undiluted HEA into the conjunctival sac of rabbits produced
corneal necrosis and eye irritation.
The Dow Chemical Company (1962) reported
that HEA reacted very rapidly with eye tissue and the undiluted material
caused extensive injury to the eye.
2-hydroxyethyl acrylate caused severe irritation with corneal injury
when instilled directly into the eyes of laboratory rabbits. Treatment
with the 10 % aqueous solution of HEA without immediate washing caused
slight eye irritation which persisted for 2 days. Thus, based on the
presented experimental evidence, HEA was assessed to have the potential
to cause serious eye damage.
There exists no
standard test method for the assessment of respiratory irritation. There
is some evidence from several inhalation hazard tests that
2-hydroxyethyl acrylate vapours may be irritating to the nose and
respiratory tract of rats (Union Carbide Corporation 1966, BASF AG
1974). This assessment is confirmed by human data (Dow Chemical Co.,
1967, 1980) and data on the structural analogue 2-hydroxypropyl
acrylate. Since the substance is classified as corrosive, the potential
to cause respiratory tract irritation is implicitly covered.
on the available data, the substance has to be classified as
Skin Corr. 1B: H314: Causes severe skin burns and eye damage in accordance
Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures (CLP)
Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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