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Toxicological information

Repeated dose toxicity: oral

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
14 Mar 2018 to 04 Oct 2018
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2018
Report Date:
2018

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 408 (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents)
Version / remarks:
1998
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method B.26 (Sub-Chronic Oral Toxicity Test: Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Remarks:
Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry, Branch Pszczyna, Department of Toxicological Studies, Doświadczalna 27, 43-200 Pszczyna, Poland
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
liquid

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Remarks:
Cmdb: Wi; outbred
Details on species / strain selection:
The animal species (Rattus norvegicus) is recognised by OECD guideline No. 408 as a recommended test system for repeated dose oral toxicity study in rodents.
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: The husbandry of laboratory animals of the Experimental Medicine Centre at the Medical University in Białystok kept behind a breeding barrier.
- Females nulliparous and non-pregnant: yes
- Age at study initiation: approximately 7 - 8 weeks at the beginning of the experiment
- Weight at study initiation: On the day of the introduction to the study (day 0), the body weight of individual animals was ± 20% of the average value for each sex:
Group 0 males 242.4 g (220 g – 268 g); females 183.5 g (170 g – 199 g)
Group 4 males 241.4 g (223 g – 288 g); females 183.4 g (175 g – 203 g)
Group 1 males 242.6 g (216 g – 268 g); females 183.5 g (172 g – 199 g)
Group 2 males 242.4 g (223 g – 268 g); females 183.5 g (172 g – 202 g)
Group 0 SAT males 280.0 g (250 g – 304 g); females 174.6 g (171 g – 185 g)
Group 2 SAT males 280.2 g (272 g – 290 g); females 174.6 g (171 g – 182 g).
- Fasting period before study: no
- Housing: The animals were kept 2-3 animals in one cage, each sex was kept separately. The cages had a plastic bottom and covered with wire-bar lids. The dimensions of cages were 58 × 37 × 21 cm (length × width × height). Autoclaved and additionally UV- irradiated dust-free wood chips were used as bedding. In each cage wooden blocks were placed, nesting material and tunnels for laboratory animals were provided.
- Diet: Labofeed H Standard, Zofia Połczyńska Wytwórnia Pasz “Morawski”, Kcynia, ad libitum.
- Water: Tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: minimum of 5 days.
- A general medical-veterinary examination was performed on the day of the introduction of the animals to the quarantine and at the end of it. Only healthy animals were used in the experiment.

DETAILS OF FOOD AND WATER QUALITY:
Each batch of feed and the water was analysed for content and contaminants.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 19 - 28
- Humidity (%): 45 - 85
- Air changes (per hr): about 15-20
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

IN-LIFE DATES:
14 Mar 2018 to 04 Oct 2018

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: Sunflower oil
Details on oral exposure:
- PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
The stability of the solutions of test item in sunflower oil was evaluated. Solutions of the test item for each group of animals were prepared every second day and stored in the fridge at a temperature of 2 – 8°C. The solutions were mixed before the administration to each animal. Solutions of the test item were prepared in the following way:
For 37.5 mg/kg b.w., there were 7.5 mg of Rokopol RF-151 in 1 g of sunflower oil formulation.
For 75 mg/kg b.w., there were 15 mg of Rokopol RF-151 in 1 g of sunflower oil formulation.
For 150 mg/kg b.w., there were 30 mg of Rokopol RF-151 in 1 g of sunflower oil formulation.

- VEHICLE
- Amount of vehicle: The test item / vehicle was given to animals in a constant volume of 0.5 mL/ 100 g b.w. calculated on the basis of body weight determined on weighing days of animals.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
In order to confirm correct preparation of the test item formulation, the solutions of the test item in sunflower oil were analysed for concentration. During treatment one sample was analysed for one dose level from batches prepared on 14-03-2018, 21-03-2018, 07-05-2018, 20-06-2018. The concentration of the test item in a vehicle was chemically determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Shimadzu, Prominence LC-2030C with Diode Array Detector (DAD).
Duration of treatment / exposure:
90 days
Frequency of treatment:
Once daily, seven days a week (first day of dosing = day 0)
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Dose / conc.:
37.5 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
Group 4 (new group after termination of treatment group 3)
Dose / conc.:
75 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
Group 1
Dose / conc.:
150 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
Group 2
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
Group 3 (group terminated for humanitarian reasons)
Dose / conc.:
150 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
Group 2 SAT (used for recovery assessment)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Group 1, 2, 4: 10 animals/dose/sex
Group 3: 5 animals/dose/sex (terminated)
Group 0 SAT/ Group 2 SAT: 5 animals/dose/sex
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: The dose levels of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg bw and also the vehicle were selected on the basis of Acute Oral Toxicity Study (Acute Toxic Class Method) (OECD 423) and a Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening test (OECD 422). Then the doses were revised on the basis of clinical signs of animals introduced to the group 3 (the dose of 300 mg/kg bw). Clinical signs such as: respiratory murmurs, difficult breathing, diarrhoea, decreased locomotor activity, bristled coat, vocalisation and body weight loss above 20%. The aim was to decrease the dose levels so that the highest dose of 150 mg/kg bw would induce toxicity but not death or severe suffering. The medium dose 75 mg/kg bw and the low dose 37.5 mg/kg bw were fixed with two fold intervals for setting the descending dose levels.
- Rationale for animal assignment: Random
- Rationale for selecting satellite groups: The satellite groups were introduced to assess the potential reversibility of any effect.
- Post-exposure recovery period in satellite groups: 21 days.
Positive control:
No

Examinations

Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes, including mortality
- Time schedule: Performed twice a day usually at the beginning and end of each day, or otherwise once daily.

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: The detailed clinical observations were conducted before the test item / medium administration and then once a week. They involved evaluation of changes in skin, fur, eyes, and mucosa membranes changes, the respiratory, the circulatory, and nervous systems, somatic activity and behaviour.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Body weights of the animals were determined prior to the beginning of the experiment (day 0) and then twice a week during the experiment.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/100 g body weight/day: Food in cages was weighted to determine food intake once a week during the experiment.

FOOD EFFICIENCY: No

WATER CONSUMPTION: No

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Ophthalmic examinations were conducted before the introduction of the animals to the experiment and before euthanasia. An indirect ophthalmoscope was used. In case of the satellite groups, these examinations were also conducted after the end of the test item/medium administration.
- Dose groups that were examined: All

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: 90th day for groups 0, 4, 1, 2 or on 111th day for groups 0 SAT and 2 SAT.
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes, xylazine-ketamine mixture at a dose of: 10 mg/kg bw of xylazine and 100 mg/kg bw of ketamine.
- Animals fasted: Yes, 16 hours without access to fodder, but ad libitum access to water.
- How many animals: All survived animals.
- Parameters examined using the Exigo haematological apparatus designed for veterinary studies taking account of the species specificity: leukocyte count, erythrocyte count, thrombocyte count, the level of haemoglobin, the hematocrit value
- Calculated erythrocyte indices included: MCV – Mean Corpuscular Volume, MCH - Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin weight, MCHC – Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration.
- Microscopic parameters examined using the May-Grunwald-Giemsa method: number of reticulocytes.
- Prothrombin time (PT) was determined with the use of test strips for the CoaguChek XS apparatus made by Roche.
- Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was performed on the Hemochron apparatus (ITC).

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: 90th day for groups 0, 4, 1, 2 or on 111th day for groups 0 SAT and 2 SAT.
- Animals fasted: Yes, 16 hours without access to fodder, but ad libitum access to water.
- How many animals: All survived animals.
- Parameters examined performed on the Olympus AU400 biochemistry analyser with the use of the Beckman Coulter reagents, bile acids were determined with the use of Randox reagents are listed in Table 1 in ‘Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables’.

URINALYSIS: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of urine: A day before the euthanasia of animals (on 89th day for groups 0, 4, 1, 2 or on 110th day for groups 0 SAT and 2 SAT).
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: Yes
- Animals fasted: No, but no access to fodder for 16 hours during housing in the metabolism cages.
- Parameters examined included: volume of urine (mL), urine colour, specific gravity, pH, protein (g/L), glucose (mmol/L), ketone bodies (mmol/L), bilirubin (qualitative test), blood (Ery/μL), urobilinogen (μmol/L), leukocyte count (leu/μL), nitrites. The general urinalysis was performed with the use of the test strips evaluated and the Clinitek Status reader with automatic reading. The Multistix-10 SG test strips (Bayer) were used, change of colour of test fields was used for a semiquantitative determination of chemical content in urine.
- The urine samples were checked microscopically for: squamous epithelium, cuboidal epithelium, leukocytes , erythrocytes, bacteria, crystals.

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: for all groups between day 85 and 89 and for the satellite.
- Dose groups that were examined: All animals from group 0, 4, 1, 2 and groups 0 SAT and 2 SAT.
- Battery of functions tested: behaviour in an open field, responses to stimuli, fore- and hindlimb grip strength, and sensorimotor activity (vertical and horizontal).

IMMUNOLOGY: Yes
- The test item effects on the immune system were evaluated based on results of blood morphology with a picture of peripheral blood and bone marrow, concentration of albumin as an acute phase protein, urea, cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, AST, ALT, AP, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, histopathological examination of thymus, spleen and lymph nodes as well as absolute and relative weights of thymus and spleen from all surviving animals.

OTHER:
Microscopical examinations of bone-marrow obtained from femur after animal euthanasia through the determination of the number of individual nuclear cells per 1000 test cells included the number of cells was determined: within the erythrocyte system, within the leukocyte system, within the range of different cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, plasmocytes, megakaryocytes and other cells).
Evaluation of bone-marrow was performed in all animals from the control group (group 0, 0 SAT) and high dose group (group 2, 2 SAT). The examination was not extended to animals of all other dosage (group 1 and 2) because all statistically significant changes that were observed were considered to be unrelated to the test item.
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
Detailed gross examination which included thorough observations of the external body surface and all orifices as well as the cranial, thoracic and abdominal cavities with their content.
After the end of experiment, absolute weights of the following internal organs of all animals were determined: brain with cerebellum, pituitary gland, thymus, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, adrenal glands, testicles, epididymides, prostate with the seminal vesicles and coagulating glands, ovaries.
The relative weight of internal organs was calculated on the basis of the absolute organ weight with reference to the live animals’ body weight.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes
The following organs and tissues were preserved for histopathological examinations: brain (representative regions including cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla/pons), pituitary, spinal cord (cervical, mid-thoracic and lumbar), eye with the optic nerve if changes were observed during ophthalmological examinations, Harderian gland, tongue, mandibular salivary gland, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, liver, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands, urinary bladder, spleen, heart, aorta, thymus, lymph nodes (mandibular and mesenteric), thyroid with parathyroid, oesophagus, larynx, trachea, lungs, ovaries with oviducts, uterus with cervix, vagina, testicles, epididymides, accessory sex glands (prostate with seminal vesicles and coagulating glands), skeletal muscle including peripheral nerve, femur with joint, skin, mammary gland and all detected gross lesions.
Bones after fixation were subjected to a decalcification.
The testicles and epididymides were fixed in modified Davidson’s fluid.
Other collected organs and tissues were fixed in a 10% solution of formalin.
Preserved samples of all collected organs and tissues were embedded in paraffin, stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated under a light microscope.
Full histopathological examination was performed on preserved organs and tissues of all animals from the control (0 and 0 SAT) and high dose (2 and 2 SAT) groups. The examination was extended to animals of other dosage groups (group 4 and 1) to organs showing treatment-related histopathological changes in the high dose group, i.e. stomach, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. All gross lesions were also examined.
The severity of observed pathological lesions were evaluated according to the scale listed in Table 2 in ´Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables’.
Statistics:
The results obtained in the study were subjected to statistical analysis, using following programs: Excel 2007, Excel 2013 and STATISTICA 10.0 PL.
Statistical analysis for males and females was performed separately. The results are presented in tables in the form of average values and standard deviation.
Food intake is summarised in tables, however statistical analysis of the results was not conducted, because the amount of data was insufficient (4 cages in non-satellite groups and 2 cages in satellite groups).
The weights of internal organs are presented in tables as absolute values as well as relative values with reference to the body weight of live animals.
The treated groups i.e. groups 4, 1, 2 were compared to the control group (group 0).
The treated satellite group i.e. 2 SAT was compared to the satellite control group (group 0 SAT), however statistical analysis of the results obtained in the satellite groups was not performed due to insufficient data (number of animals n=4 in the group 2 SAT, both in males and females).
The course of the statistical analysis (group 0, 4, 1, 2) was as follows:
- the normality of the distribution was examined using the Shapiro-Wilk test and the homogeneity of variance by the Brown-Forsythe test,
- results which were characterized by normal distribution and homogeneous variances were analysed using a one-way analysis of variance and if necessary followed by Dunnett's test,
- in the absence of normality of distribution or non-homogeneous variances, the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used, if necessary followed by Dunnett's test.
The obtained results were analysed statistically at p ≤ 0.05.

Results and discussion

Results of examinations

Clinical signs:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
In 5 males and 5 females at the (originally intended) dose of 300 mg/kg b.w. following clinical changes were observed: respiratory murmurs, difficult breathing, diarrhea, decreased locomotor activity, bristled coat, vocalization, body weight loss above 20%, therefore other animals were not introduced into group 3. Due to these changes all of 10 animals from group 3 (dose 300 mg/kg b.w.) were euthanised for humanitarian reasons.
Clinical signs were observed in 16 animals during the entire experiment. The few clinical signs which occurred in animals during the entire experiment were connected with: skin, eyes and eyelids, respiratory system. The symptoms connected with hair and skin were observed from the 4th week and remained till the end of the experiment. Porphyrin (deposition around the eye) was observed on the 1st and the 8th week of the experiment, therefore can be considered as transient. These changes occurred spontaneously in animals and should not be connected with the test item action.
Respiratory murmurs were observed on the 1st and 13th week of the experiment and may be caused by administering the test item by gavage.
The clinical examinations did not reveal any test item-related effects in animals that died during the course of experiment, with the exception of clinical signs connected with locomotor system, behaviour and reactions to stimuli (dejection, seizures, distinct decrease of locomotor activity) in one male of group 2, that occurred after administration of the test item, before the death of the animal and probably were test item-related.
There were no significant differences in physical appearance and behaviour between the treated groups and the control groups.
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence):
The administration of the test item to the animals did not cause mortality in group 0 (dose 0 mg/kg bw), 0 SAT (0 mg/kg bw), 4 (dose 37.5 mg/kg bw) and 1 (dose 75 mg/kg bw). Six animals died during the experiment (four animals from group 2 (dose 150 mg/kg bw) and two animals from group 2 SAT (150 mg/kg bw).
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The administration of the test item at the doses of 37.5 mg/kg bw and 75 mg/kg bw did not influence body weights of animals in the treated groups.
Statistically significantly lower average body weight in males of group 2 (the dose 150 mg/kg bw), which occurred in the 13th week of the experiment was correlated with body weight loss in two males stated during this time. Moreover, average body weight in the males from group 2 SAT was, at the same time of experiment, 11% lower compared to the group 0 SAT. So the tendency to mild body weight loss in males is clear in both groups at the end of the dosing period and it is probably connected with the test item action (Table 1 and 2 in 'Any other information on results incl. tables').
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Body weight loss was not accompanied by changes in food intake, as food intake was similar in treated groups compared to control groups both in males and females.
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The ophthalmic examinations did not show any changes in the eyes of the control animals and the treated animals.
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Haematological findings can be found in Tables 3 to 12 in 'Any other information on results incl. tables'.
In case of haematological examinations, the most significant, treatment related change that was found both in males and females, was an increase in the number of leukocytes in group 2. Compared to the control group 0, the number of leukocytes in males increased by 85% and in females by 66%. Despite the lack of statistical analysis of the results of satellite groups, it was visible that this change was persistent. In females from group 2 SAT the number of leukocyte increased by 61% compared to the control group 0 SAT, while in males from group 2 SAT the increase by 21% was observed compared to the control group 0 SAT.
Changes dependent on the test item were also found in the percentage content of leukocytes. In males, dose-related increase in the number of neutrocytes and decrease in the number of lymphocytes in group 1 and 2 was observed. Similar changes were stated in females from group 2. Despite the lack of statistical analysis of the results of satellite groups, it was visible that these changes were persistent. In case of neutrocytes, in females from group 2 SAT this change was more severe, the number of neutrocytes increased by 193% compared to the control group 0 SAT, while in males from group 2 SAT the increase by 92% was observed compared to the control group 0 SAT. In case of lymphocytes, the decrease by about 31%, both in males and females from group 2 SAT was observed compared to the control group 0 SAT.
The changes observed in the percentage of leukocytes were confirmed in the results of the bone marrow examination in the form of the following treatment related changes: increase in the total number of cells in the leukocyte system in males from group 1 and 2, decrease in the total number of different cells, both in males and females from group 2, and decrease in the number of lymphocytes in females from group 1, and both in males and females from group 2. A similar tendency was visible in the results of satellite group despite the lack of statistical analysis.
All the changes discussed above in haematological and bone marrow examinations may indicate the presence of inflammation in animals.
Statistically significant increase in the number of thrombocytes could also be connected with inflammation, however, changes observed in females from group 1 and 2 were constant and did not change with increasing dose, both in group 1 and in group 2, the number of thrombocytes increased by 11%. The increase in the number of thrombocytes in males from group 2 was similar to that of females, about 12%. In the satellite groups 2 SAT, changes in the number of thrombocytes were less intense and opposite, i.e. in males the number of thrombocytes increased by 7%, while in females the number of thrombocytes decreased by 7% compared to the control group 0S AT. Therefore, changes in the number of thrombocytes were not considered to be related to the treatment.
The decrease in the prothrombin time in males from group 2 was considered as not related with the treatment due to isolated nature.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Clinical biochemistry findings can be found in Tables 13 to 16 in 'Any other information on results incl. tables'.
There were several statistically significant changes in the results of biochemical examinations in group 2, both in males and females. Changes in the concentration of albumin, globulin as well as changes in the A/G ratio were connected with the inflammation and were considered to be related to the test item. A similar tendency in the results of biochemical examinations was visible in the results of satellite groups despite the lack of statistical analysis.
Statistically significant changes in the concentration of electrolytes, i.e. sodium and chlorides, in females from groups 4 and 1 were not related to the test item due to the accidental nature and lack of confirmation in groups with a higher dosage.
No statistically significant changes were found in the results of enzymatic examinations, both in males and females from groups 4, 1, and 2. In case of satellite groups, results of enzymatic examinations in groups 2 SAT were comparable to the results of the control group 0 SAT with the exception of AST activity in males from group 2 SAT. An elevated mean AST activity in males from group 2 SAT was caused by a high reading in a single animal, and it should be considered as accidental.
Urinalysis findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Statistically significant changes observed in the results of general urine examinations were not connected with the treatment. Increase in the amount of nitrites in females from group 4 did not occur in the higher dosage groups i.e. 1 and 2. Decrease in the pH value in males from group 2 was not toxicologically relevant. There were no statistically significant changes in the results of urine sediment examinations.
In the results of general and sediment urine examinations in the satellite group 2 SAT, both in males and females, there were no results which can be perceived as treatment related compared to the control group 0 SAT.
Behaviour (functional findings):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The statistically significant decrease of locomotor activity (vertical) was observed in females from group 2 during time intervals 0-30 minutes compared to control group. Lower average of locomotor activity (vertical) was observed in the same time intervals in females from group 2 SAT (measurement 1). Because the measurement of group 2 and 2 SAT was conducted at the same stage of the experiment (before the end of administration of the test item), it can be concluded that this change probably could be connected with the administration of the test item.
The behavioural studies showed that the nervous system functioned properly. The detailed clinical observations made during and after the treatment, and the open field observations did not reveal any muscarinic symptoms, nicotinic symptoms, or central symptoms caused by the test item. Delayed neurotoxicity was not observed.
During the open field observations, single cases of increased and decreased arousal were found. Changes in arousal was observed both in treated and control groups so it should not be connected with the administered material. There were no statistically significant changes in males and females of: number of faecal boluses, number of urine pools, horizontal and vertical locomotor activity (3-minute measurement).
Results of evaluation of reactions to stimuli did not show any harmful influence of the test item on animals. Changes in responses to objects, being touched, sound, and the pinna reflex were not noticed both in males and females from groups 0, 4, 1, 2.
The administration of the test item did not affect latency time of pain reaction in the no satellite groups.
The administration of the test item did not affect fore- and hindlimb grip strength in the treated groups. There were no statistically significant differences in fore- and hindlimb grip strength of males and females between the treated and the control groups.
There were no differences in horizontal locomotor activities of males and females between the treated groups (4, 1, 2) and the control group (0).
Immunological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Findings related to immunological effects can be found in Tables 13 to 16 in 'Any other information on results incl. tables'.
The test item effects on the immune system were evaluated based on results of blood morphology with a picture of peripheral blood and bone marrow, concentration of albumin as an acute phase protein, urea, cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, AST, ALT, AP, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, histopathological examination of thymus, spleen and lymph nodes as well as absolute and relative weights of thymus and spleen from all animals.
Statistical analyses of the clinical-chemical examinations results showed several statistically significant changes which were perceived as caused by the test item at the doses of 75 mg/kg bw (group 1) and 150 mg/kg bw (group 2) and may indicate inflammation in treated animals, i.e. increase in the number of leukocytes in males and females from group 2; increase in the number of neutrocytes in males from group 1 and 2 and females from group 2; decrease in the number of lymphocytes in males from group 1and 2 and females from group 2; increase in the total number of cells in leukocyte system of bone marrow in males from group 1 and 2; decrease in the number of bone marrow lymphocytes in males from group 2 and females from group 1 and 2; decrease in the total number of different cells in males and females from group 2; decrease in the albumin concentration and A/G ratio in males from group 2; increase in the globulin concentration and decrease in the A/G ratio in females from group 2.
There were no statistically significant changes in absolute and relative weights of thymus and spleen as well as no test item-related pathological changes in thymus, however mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged in males of group 1 and males and females of group 2 and 2 SAT.
Histopathological evaluation revealed in mesenteric lymph nodes from group 1, 2 and 2 SAT atrophic lymphoid tissue, increased histiocytes, necrosis, enlargement, fibrosis with accompanying in some cases angiogenesis and/or shrinking and/or plasma cell hyperplasia and/or cell degeneration and vacuolation, that most likely are test item related.
White pulp hyperplasia observed in spleen, despite the occurrence in the control group, due to increase in the number of animals as well as severity degree in females in group 2, should be considered as related to the test item. The decreased number and/or severity of white pulp hyperplasia in animals from group 2 SAT indicates possible regression of changes after stopping the administration of the test item.
Therefore it can be concluded that the test item at the dose levels of 75 and 150 mg/kg bw (males and females) affected the immune system of the treated animals.
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The only statistically significant increases were stated in relative weights of thyroid, testicles and epididymides in males of group 2 (the dose of 150 mg/kg bw), however no statistically significant changes were stated in absolute weights of internal organs. Organs may change in relative weight in a manner dependent upon body weight rather than as a result of a test item primary toxic effect and at the end of the dosing period the decrease of average body weight in the males of group 2 occurred. Moreover, histopathological evaluation did not reveal corresponding pathological changes in above mentioned organs that could state for toxicity of the test item, hence the decreases of relative weight of thyroid, testicles and epididymides should not be related to the test item (Table 17 to 20 in 'Any other information on results incl. tables').
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The test item also was not responsible for the increase of the amount of visceral fat, that was noticed during gross examinations as excessively obese animals in controls (group 0 and 0 SAT) and low dose group 4, which was rather connected with the type of adminstered vehicle (sunflower oil), as there were only two cases of females in the mid dose and two in the high dose group.
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Histopathological evaluation revealed in mesenteric lymph nodes from group 1, 2 and 2 SAT atrophic lymphoid tissue, increased histiocytes, necrosis, enlargement, fibrosis with accompanying in some cases angiogenesis and/or shrinking and/or plasma cell hyperplasia and/or cell degeneration and vacuolation, that most likely are test item related.
Minimal increases of histiocytes were observed in mesenteric lymph nodes in group 4 in a small number, in this case it should not be connected with test item due to spontaneously occurring in rats.
White pulp hyperplasia observed in spleen, despite the occurrence in the control group, due to increase in the number of animals, as well as the severity degree in females in group 2, should be considered as related to the test item. The decreased number and/or severity of white pulp hyperplasia in animals from group 2 SAT indicates possible regression of changes after stopping the administration of the test item. In males, because of similarity of occurrence, these lesions may be treated as normal incidental finding and not related to the test item.
Although erosions in stomach are spontaneously occurring in rats, in the fallen animals, a slightly higher intensity of occurrence was observed. In connection with necrosis of mucosa (singular cases in groups with the highest dose) there is possibility of influence of test item on stomach mucosa in the highest dose.
Other findings were incidental and not related to the test material. These findings include histological changes in the thymus, lymph nodes, germ cells, epididymis, salivary gland, prostate, infiltration of leukocytes (in Harderian glands, trachea, larynx, lungs, liver, kidneys, prostate and various parts of digestive tract), pancreas, pituitary pars distalis, muscle fibres degeneration liver, kidney, adrenal glands.
Furthermore, so-called background lesions are often observed in rats. They are related to species, gender or age, and should not be associated with the test item administered to animals. Such changes in the rat include, among others: foci of mineralisation, foci of osteometaplasia, foci of chondrometaplasia, foci of neurometaplasia, aggregation/s of alveolar macrophages (macroscopically seen as light foci bulged above surface of lungs), cysts, bronchoalveolar hyperplasia, atrophy of the renal papillae, hyaline casts, fibroplasia, basophilic tubules, hepatocytes vacuolation, diverticulum in jejunum, accessory adrenocortical nodules, germ cell degeneration, hyperkeratosis and focal glandules dilation in stomach, glandular hyperplasia in duodenum, dilation of the tracheal glands, foci of hepatocyte degeneration, angiogenesis, bile duct hyperplasia, periportal lipid vacuolation, macrovesicular fatty changes, acinar dilation in seminal vesicles and coagulating gland, foci of fatty changes in pancreas or ovaries or adrenal glands or urinary bladder, hyperplasia or hypoplasia of islet cells, hyperplasia or hypoplasia of mammary gland, oedema in prostate. The lack of association with the influence of the test item is evidenced by the presence of the lesions in the control groups and historical data obtained from other 90-day toxicity studies.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not examined

Effect levels

Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
37.5 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
haematology
histopathology: non-neoplastic

Target system / organ toxicity

open allclose all
Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
75 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
System:
immune system
Organ:
mesenteric lymph node
Treatment related:
yes
Dose response relationship:
yes
Relevant for humans:
yes
Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
75 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
System:
haematopoietic
Organ:
spleen
Treatment related:
yes
Dose response relationship:
yes
Relevant for humans:
yes

Any other information on results incl. tables

Analytical verification of dose concentrations

The calculated ROKOPOL RF-151 average determination were in the range of 84.9% ÷ 98.1% of labelled dosages, so they fulfilled acceptance criteria for biological samples, which are 80.0% ÷ 120.0%.

Table 1 Body weight - treatment groups (mean ± SD)

 

Week

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0 / 0

4 / 37.5

1 / 75

2 / 150

Male

n=10

Female

n=10

Male

n=10

Female

 n=10

Male

n=10

Female

n=10

Male

n=10

Female

n=10

0

242.40 ± 13.91

183.50 ± 9.25

241.40 ± 20.23

183.40 ± 8.49

242.60 ± 15.12

183.50 ± 8.07

242.40 ± 12.55

183.50 ± 9.44

0.5

267.10 ± 16.06

193.80 ± 11.92

264.40 ± 25.66

194.10 ± 9.49

258.70 ± 14.80

189.80 ± 7.18

251.40 ± 16.36

186.10 ± 11.83

1

289.00 ± 16.18

200.80 ± 11.54

283.00 ± 29.14

200.60 ± 9.59

275.70 ± 15.17

195.80 ± 9.02

270.80 ± 22.75

196.11 ± 10.23 a

1.5

301.90 ± 16.95

205.20 ± 11.32

296.30 ± 32.47

204.50 ± 13.27

289.70 ± 18.83

200.10 ± 10.16

279.00 ± 19.16

203.56 ± 12.38 a

2

316.90 ± 19.63

212.70 ± 11.95

311.80 ± 34.20

211.90 ± 13.90

304.70 ± 22.45

205.50 ± 8.48

294.30 ± 21.03

209.11 ± 11.23 a

2.5

326.10 ± 20.97

214.90 ± 13.58

319.60 ± 37.76

215.90 ± 12.33

313.10 ± 23.35

212.70 ± 8.47

302.10 ± 21.06

213.00 ± 12.51 a

3

337.20 ± 23.20

220.40 ± 15.13

330.30 ± 42.47

220.00 ± 13.56

325.80 ± 23.03

218.80 ± 8.93

316.60 ± 24.80

219.67 ± 14.11 a

3.5

345.70 ± 23.90

225.30 ± 13.57

339.90 ± 44.08

223.70 ± 13.00

332.70 ± 26.06

221.50 ± 9.56

322.20 ± 25.73

223.89 ± 13.13 a

4

354.40 ± 24.84

230.00 ± 14.46

348.00 ± 48.27

229.00 ± 14.15

342.40 ± 27.75

223.00 ± 10.79

333.50 ± 25.43

229.00 ± 11.37 a

4.5

363.20 ± 26.43

234.10 ± 15.58

355.70 ± 50.95

234.70 ± 14.13

351.60 ± 29.02

228.60 ± 9.92

340.30 ± 25.88

233.44 ± 12.45 a

5

370.80 ± 28.90

237.30 ± 16.10

359.90 ± 53.46

238.80 ± 15.19

358.90 ± 29.04

233.50 ± 10.35

344.80 ± 26.44

235.11 ± 13.42 a

5.5

374.10 ± 30.72

238.50 ± 15.87

366.30 ± 53.10

240.60 ± 16.06

366.50 ± 28.59

234.10 ± 12.39

351.50 ± 25.73

238.33 ± 14.89 a

6

380.80 ± 31.29

242.30 ± 16.15

372.60 ± 54.04

243.10 ± 17.14

369.80 ± 28.23

236.60 ± 13.68

353.00 ± 25.98

239.44 ± 15.32 a

6.5

386.00 ± 31.41

244.90 ± 18.02

376.30 ± 54.63

244.80 ± 15.41

373.40 ± 28.41

239.60 ± 13.30

358.60 ± 28.73

241.44 ± 15.96 a

7

393.00 ± 33.22

247.70 ± 18.19

383.50 ± 57.67

248.00 ± 15.75

379.40 ± 28.58

242.90 ± 12.27

358.90 ± 31.15

242.89 ± 16.58 a

7.5

396.20 ± 32.98

250.30 ± 16.85

386.20 ± 56.49

250.80 ± 15.60

383.20 ± 29.69

244.10 ± 12.62

366.90 ± 30.06

245.11 ± 14.09 a

8

399.10 ± 34.99

253.70 ± 16.53

392.00 ± 59.03

257.10 ± 15.74

389.00 ± 31.99

246.60 ± 12.43

371.60 ± 30.04

246.67 ± 13.30 a

8.5

405.40 ± 34.94

256.60 ± 17.75

395.60 ± 58.79

256.90 ± 15.90

393.20 ± 31.67

248.20 ± 10.80

377.30 ± 28.68

250.11 ± 16.21 a

9

409.90 ± 33.39

259.00 ± 17.80

398.90 ± 59.08

257.60 ± 17.35

396.00 ± 31.70

250.10 ± 11.63

378.70 ± 28.79

251.13 ± 14.59 b

9.5

414.70 ± 33.96

258.80 ± 18.42

402.50 ± 57.97

260.40 ± 19.02

401.70 ± 32.54

251.40 ± 12.69

382.40 ± 27.56

250.88 ± 18.03 b

10

418.30 ± 36.44

260.50 ± 17.63

405.90 ± 57.95

261.90 ± 18.79

406.30 ± 33.65

252.80 ± 12.06

384.10 ± 29.26

253.13 ± 18.28 b

10.5

422.90 ± 35.12

259.80 ± 20.09

409.90 ± 58.36

262.60 ± 18.80

409.80 ± 33.46

255.20 ± 12.45

387.20 ± 25.21

256.00 ± 16.97 c

11

427.30 ± 33.44

263.60 ± 19.35

413.10 ± 57.55

265.30 ± 19.42

413.40 ± 34.07

254.90 ± 12.86

390.20 ± 27.97

258.57 ± 17.24 c

11.5

433.10 ± 35.43

263.90 ± 19.42

416.40 ± 58.61

265.90 ± 18.99

415.30 ± 35.35

255.40 ± 10.86

392.00 ± 26.22

259.14 ± 15.52 c

12

437.70 ± 34.26

266.70 ± 18.52

420.60 ± 58.89

268.20 ± 18.68

416.80 ± 36.44

257.40 ± 11.55

388.89 ± 22.71 a

260.57 ± 15.11 c

12.5

441.90 ± 34.75

268.30 ± 19.29

423.10 ± 57.50

270.90 ± 17.79

420.00 ± 38.78

257.10 ± 10.86

391.89 ± 21.50 a

262.71 ± 17.18 c

13

442.90 ± 34.67

269.70 ± 20.76

424.40 ± 57.33

272.10 ± 19.89

422.20 ± 40.52

262.00 ± 12.06

387.78 ± 20.50* a

261.57 ± 16.85 c

n – number of animals in group

* – statistically significant difference at p ≤ 0.05

a - n=9

b - n=8

c - n=7

 

Table 2. Body weight - satellite groups (mean ± SD)

 

Week

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0 SAT / 0

2 SAT / 150

Male

n=5

Female

n=5

Male

n=5

Female

n=5

0

280.00 ± 20.09

174.60 ± 5.94

280.20 ± 7.95

174.60 ± 4.34

0.5

294.00 ± 22.97

182.20 ± 3.11

285.40 ± 4.51

174.40 ± 5.13

1

305.80 ± 26.53

192.40 ± 2.88

296.00 ± 4.69

185.60 ± 4.22

1.5

314.80 ± 25.90

194.40 ± 3.51

307.20 ± 4.71

192.80 ± 6.87

2

326.60 ± 27.90

199.60 ± 5.03

316.60 ± 2.51

198.80 ± 5.45

2.5

335.00 ± 27.84

203.80 ± 6.46

322.80 ± 4.38

202.80 ± 5.72

3

339.20 ± 29.49

208.60 ± 8.38

324.00 ± 6.52

208.00 ± 5.00

3.5

349.40 ± 31.17

212.60 ± 3.78

330.20 ± 5.36

213.80 ± 4.32

4

356.20 ± 33.89

217.80 ± 4.87

335.80 ± 6.98

221.20 ± 4.55

4.5

359.00 ± 33.93

223.60 ± 6.58

338.00 ± 4.74

222.40 ± 3.58

5

363.80 ± 36.36

225.20 ± 6.72

340.40 ± 5.68

223.25 ± 3.20 a

5.5

371.00 ± 37.91

228.80 ± 8.70

347.40 ± 7.47

226.25 ± 3.86 a

6

379.80 ± 39.96

230.60 ± 4.77

349.00 ± 7.48

228.50 ± 5.07 a

6.5

384.00 ± 38.60

231.60 ± 6.47

351.60 ± 5.64

231.25 ± 6.40 a

7

392.00 ± 37.97

232.20 ± 8.14

358.40 ± 6.11

235.75 ± 6.85 a

7.5

395.80 ± 38.31

237.20 ± 6.94

362.75 ± 5.68 a

235.50 ± 6.03 a

8

400.20 ± 39.07

239.00 ± 7.35

367.50 ± 7.23 a

238.50 ± 6.03 a

8.5

405.80 ± 39.60

243.40 ± 8.02

372.75 ± 7.72 a

235.25 ± 6.18 a

9

409.80 ± 40.00

244.60 ± 8.85

377.00 ± 6.38 a

239.50 ± 4.65 a

9.5

413.40 ± 39.20

244.40 ± 9.45

380.00 ± 7.16 a

241.75 ± 7.72 a

10

416.60 ± 39.85

246.80 ± 9.76

385.25 ± 6.70 a

243.25 ± 8.26 a

10.5

422.20 ± 39.93

247.00 ± 11.36

388.00 ± 8.12 a

246.50 ± 10.79 a

11

426.20 ± 38.34

247.60 ± 12.78

389.75 ± 5.38 a

253.75 ± 15.86 a

11.5

430.80 ± 37.92

249.60 ± 11.01

389.50 ± 8.27 a

249.25 ± 8.96 a

12

434.00 ± 36.16

253.00 ± 11.20

392.25 ± 11.59 a

251.50 ± 7.33 a

12.5

438.80 ± 35.35

254.60 ± 11.19

393.75 ± 10.31 a

249.75 ± 2.99 a

13

444.00 ± 32.69

255.40 ± 10.78

395.00 ± 10.10 a

251.25 ± 3.86 a

13.5

440.80 ± 36.52

253.80 ± 9.60

399.75 ± 9.11 a

253.00 ± 7.62 a

14

443.40 ± 33.80

256.00 ± 11.31

405.00 ± 10.89 a

257.25 ± 11.18 a

14.5

447.40 ± 34.63

254.40 ± 13.33

407.50 ± 9.68 a

258.50 ± 10.54 a

15

449.40 ± 32.42

255.60 ±12.66

412.00 ± 5.60 a

259.50 ± 11.39 a

15.5

454.00 ± 34.46

259.00 ± 12.39

417.50 ± 7.05 a

260.75 ± 9.84 a

16

448.20 ± 32.56

255.20 ± 11.65

415.00 ± 4.76 a

256.00 ± 9.42 a

n – number of animals in group

a - n=4

No statistical analyses were conducted, because the amount of data was insufficient (4 animals/ group 2 SAT/ sex).

Table 3. Haematological and coagulological examination - treatment groups (mean ± SD)

 

Parameter

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0/0

4/37.5

1/75

2/150

Male

n=10

Female

n=10

Male

n=10

Female

n=10

Male

n=10

Female

n=9

Male

n=9

Female

 n=7

HAEMOGLOBIN [g/L]

157.40 ± 6.35

146.10 ± 4.79

157.80 ± 4.13

150.50 ± 4.38

152.20 ± 9.91

145.89 ± 5.44

152.22 ± 6.10

147.86 ± 9.26

HAEMATOCRIT [1/1]

0.45 ± 0.04

0.43 ± 0.03

0.46 ± 0.01

0.46 ± 0.01

0.43 ± 0.04

0.42 ± 0.03

0.43 ± 0.03

0.44 ± 0.04

ERYTHROCYTES [1012/L x]

9.47 ± 0.49

8.43 ± 0.31

9.63 ± 0.22

8.67 ± 0.27

9.32 ± 0.58

8.39 ± 0.40

9.53 ± 0.53

8.67 ± 0.63

MCV [fL]

47.34 ± 1.90

50.95 ± 1.95

48.08 ± 1.00

52.82 ± 1.66

46.31 ± 2.27

50.38 ± 2.15

45.18 ± 2.25

50.19 ± 2.20

MCH [pg]

16.60 ± 0.45

17.34 ± 0.33

16.41 ± 0.34

17.39 ± 0.52

16.31 ± 0.55

17.39 ± 0.62

15.98 ± 0.57

17.06 ± 0.44

MCHC [g/L]

351.60 ± 14.56

341.00 ± 12.52

341.10 ± 4.09

329.60 ± 2.50

353.00 ± 11.13

345.78 ± 11.58

354.22 ± 10.44

340.29 ± 15.43

RETICULOCYTES [1/1]

0.013 ± 0.004

0.013 ± 0.003

0.011 ± 0.003

0.011 ± 0.003

0.014 ± 0.005

0.016 ± 0.004

0.015 ± 0.006

0.016 ± 0.003

THROMBOCYTES [x 109/L]

628.30 ± 26.39

608.80 ± 48.07

653.90 ± 45.92

635.40 ± 52.39

665.20 ± 34.12

677.67 ± 67.49*

701.67 ± 71.67*

675.43 ± 35.86*

LEUKOCYTES [x 109/L]

4.40 ± 0.82

2.79 ± 0.77

4.40 ± 0.83

3.06 ± 0.66

5.64 ± 1.30

3.43 ± 0.51

8.16 ± 2.62*

4.63 ± 0.93*

PT [s]

13.28 ± 0.70

11.12 ± 0.50

13.28 ± 0.99

11.36 ± 0.25

12.70 ± 0.81

10.86 ± 0.66a

12.36 ± 0.52*

11.24 ± 0.28

APTT [s]

56.80 ± 4.54

58.30 ± 5.77

57.00 ± 10.76

51.80 ± 6.60

55.50 ± 9.47

50.78 ± 7.05

57.11 ± 7.83

56.86 ± 5.34

n - number of test animals

* - statistically significant difference with p ≤ 0.05; Dunnett's test;

A - n=10

 

Table 4. Haematological and coagulological examination - satellite groups (mean ± SD)

 

Parameter

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0SAT / 0

0SAT / 0

2SAT / 150

2SAT / 150

Male

n=5

Female

n=5

Male

n=3

Female

n=4

HAEMOGLOBIN [g/L]

150.60 ± 6.07

148.40 ± 1.82

155.67 ± 8.62

151.25 ± 1.26

HAEMATOCRIT [1/1]

0.43 ± 0.02

0.42 ± 0.01

0.45 ± 0.02

0.43 ± 0.01

ERYTHROCYTES [1012/L x]

8.98 ± 0.20

8.20 ± 0.31

9.36 ± 0.33

8.65 ± 0.23

MCV [fL]

48.26 ± 1.76

51.66 ± 1.29

48.20 ± 0.95

50.00 ± 1.94

MCH [pg]

16.74 ± 0.46

18.12 ± 0.63

16.63 ± 0.32

17.50 ± 0.58

MCHC [g/L]

347.20 ± 4.76

350.80 ± 5.36

345.33 ± 1.15

350.00 ± 2.16

RETICULOCYTES [1/1]

0.025 ± 0.010

0.018 ± 0.004

0.018 ± 0.005

0.017 ± 0.002

THROMBOCYTES [x 109/L]

658.80 ± 56.44

617.00 ± 71.23

705.67 ± 81.13

590.25 ± 67.29

LEUKOCYTES [x 109/L]

3.06 ± 0.74

2.02 ± 0.43

3.70 ± 0.69

3.25 ± 1.01

PT [s]

13.32 ± 0.77

11.30 ± 0.75

12.70 ± 0.96a

11.93 ± 0.95

APTT [s]

53.20 ± 7.01

48.60 ± 8.73

46.75 ± 8.81a

64.25 ± 19.17

n - number of test animals

a - n=4

No statistical analyses were conducted due to insufficient data

 

 

Table 5. Haematological examination - Percentage content of leukocytes (leukocytogram) - treatment groups (mean ± SD)

 

Parameter

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0/0

4/37.5

1/75

2/150

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=10

Female n=9

Male

n=9

Female n=7

NEUTROCYTES [1/1]

0.18 ± 0.06

0.17 ± 0.05

0.23 ± 0.07

0.17 ± 0.03

0.36 ± 0.16*

0.25 ± 0.10

0.49 ± 0.13*

0.37 ± 0.17*

EOSINOCYTES [1/1]

0.00 ± 0.01

0.00 ± 0.01

0.01 ± 0.01

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.01

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.01

0.00 ± 0.00

LYMPHOCYTES [1/1]

0.81 ± 0.06

0.82 ± 0.05

0.76 ± 0.08

0.82 ± 0.04

0.63 ± 0.16*

0.74 ± 0.10

0.50 ± 0.12*

0.63 ± 0.17*

MONOCYTES [1/1]

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

OTHER CELLS [1/1]

0.01 ± 0.01

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.01

0.00 ± 0.00

0.01 ± 0.01

0.00 ± 0.01

0.00 ± 0.01

n - number of test animals

* - statistically significant difference with p ≤ 0.05; Dunnett's test;

 

Table 6. Haematological examination - Percentage content of leukocytes (leukocytogram) - satellite groups (mean ± SD)

 

Parameter

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0SAT / 0

0SAT / 0

2SAT / 150

2SAT / 150

Male

n=5

Female

n=5

Male

n=3

Female

n=4

NEUTROCYTES [1/1]

0.25 ± 0.08

0.14 ± 0.03

0.48 ± 0.17

0.41 ± 0.16

EOSINOCYTES [1/1]

0.01 ± 0.01

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.01

0.00 ± 0.00

LYMPHOCYTES [1/1]

0.74 ± 0.07

0.85 ± 0.03

0.52 ± 0.16

0.59 ± 0.16

MONOCYTES [1/1]

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

OTHER CELLS [1/1]

0.01 ± 0.01

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

n - number of test animals

No statistical analyses were conducted due to insufficient data

 

Table 7. Results of haematological studies – bone marrow examination Erythrocyte system - treatment groups (mean ± SD)

 

Parameter

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0/0

4/37.5

1/75

2/150

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=9

Female n=7

PROERYTHROBLAST

[1/1]

0.017 ± 0.004

0.016 ± 0.004

0.017 ± 0.004

0.016 ± 0.003

0.016 ± 0.004

0.016 ± 0.003

0.017 ± 0.003

0.015 ± 0.003

BASOPHILIC ERYTHROBLASTS

 

[1/1]

0.034 ± 0.003

0.032 ± 0.004

0.031 ± 0.004

0.031 ± 0.004

0.032 ± 0.004

0.034 ± 0.003

0.032 ± 0.003

0.034 ± 0.005

POLYCHROMATOPHILIC ERYTHROBLASTS

 

[1/1]

0.162 ± 0.008

0.163 ± 0.009

0.163 ± 0.008

0.162 ± 0.007

0.161 ± 0.006

0.162 ± 0.007

0.162 ± 0.008

0.162 ± 0.008

ORTHOCHROMATIC ERYTHROBLASTS

 

[1/1]

0.182 ± 0.007

0.182 ± 0.005

0.182 ± 0.006

0.181 ± 0.009

0.178 ± 0.004

0.178 ± 0.005

0.182 ± 0.006

0.181 ± 0.005

TOTAL

[1/1]

0.394 ± 0.012

0.393 ± 0.010

0.393 ± 0.006

0.391 ± 0.007

0.387 ± 0.012

0.390 ± 0.010

0.392 ± 0.013

0.393 ± 0.010

n - number of test animals

 

Table 8. Results of haematological studies – bone marrow examination Erythrocyte system - satellite groups (mean ± SD)

 

Parameter

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0SAT / 0

2SAT / 150

Male

n=5

Female

n=5

Male

n=4

Female

n=4

PROERYTHROBLAST

[1/1]

0.016 ± 0.003

0.015 ± 0.003

0.016 ± 0.003

0.014 ± 0.002

BASOPHILIC ERYTHROBLASTS

 

[1/1]

0.034 ± 0.005

0.034 ± 0.002

0.034 ± 0.005

0.033 ± 0.004

POLYCHROMATOPHILIC ERYTHROBLASTS

 

[1/1]

0.162 ± 0.008

0.161 ± 0.007

0.162 ± 0.005

0.161 ± 0.009

ORTHOCHROMATIC ERYTHROBLASTS

 

[1/1]

0.181 ± 0.006

0.181 ± 0.007

0.177 ± 0.008

0.177 ± 0.004

TOTAL

[1/1]

0.394 ± 0.015

0.391 ± 0.016

0.389 ± 0.002

0.385 ± 0.012

n - number of test animals

No statistical analyses were conducted due to insufficient data

 

Table 9. Results of haematological studies – bone marrow examination Leukocyte system - treatment group (mean ± SD)

 

Parameter

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0/0

4/37.5

1/75

2/150

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=9

Female n=7

MYELOBLASTS

0.016 ±

0.016 ±

0.016 ±

0.016 ±

0.018 ±

0.016 ±

0.017 ±

0.015 ±

[1/1]

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

PROMYELOCYTES

0.028 ±

0.029 ±

0.030 ±

0.029 ±

0.030 ±

0.029 ±

0.031 ±

0.029 ±

[1/1]

0.004

0.004

0.005

0.003

0.003

0.004

0.003

0.004

ORTHOCHROMATOPHILIC MYELOCYTES

[1/1]

0.038 ± 0.004

0.035 ± 0.005

0.037 ± 0.005

0.037 ± 0.004

0.039 ± 0.004

0.039 ± 0.003

0.040 ± 0.006

0.038 ± 0.005

ACIDOPHILIC

MYELOCYTES [1/1]

0.014 ± 0.002

0.013 ± 0.003

0.014 ± 0.003

0.014 ± 0.002

0.015 ± 0.003

0.014 ± 0.003

0.014 ± 0.002

0.017 ± 0.003

ORTHOCHROMATOPHILIC METAMYELOCYTES

[1/1]

0.046 ± 0.004

0.043 ± 0.006

0.043 ± 0.005

0.044 ± 0.004

0.048 ± 0.004

0.046 ± 0.003

0.046 ± 0.005

0.046 ± 0.005

ACIDOPHILIC METAMYELOCYTES

[1/1]

0.016 ± 0.003

0.017 ± 0.003

0.017 ± 0.004

0.017 ± 0.003

0.017 ± 0.002

0.018 ± 0.002

0.017 ± 0.003

0.018 ± 0.002

ROD NEUTROPHILS

0.026 ±

0.027 ±

0.028 ±

0.028 ±

0.027 ±

0.028 ±

0.028 ±

0.025 ±

[1/1]

0.004

0.005

0.006

0.003

0.005

0.006

0.003

0.003

ROD EOSINOPHILS

0.014 ±

0.014 ±

0.014 ±

0.014 ±

0.014 ±

0.014 ±

0.014 ±

0.016 ±

[1/1]

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.003

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.003

FILAMENTED NEUTROPHILS

[1/1]

0.180 ± 0.008

0.179 ± 0.007

0.183 ± 0.008

0.182 ± 0.006

0.184 ± 0.006

0.182 ± 0.006

0.187 ± 0.006

0.186 ± 0.007

FILAMENTED

EOSINOPHILS [1/1]

0.014 ± 0.003

0.015 ± 0.003

0.016 ± 0.003

0.015 ± 0.003

0.016 ± 0.002

0.016 ± 0.002

0.015 ± 0.002

0.015 ± 0.002

BASOPHILS

0.005 ±

0.005 ±

0.005 ±

0.005 ±

0.006 ±

0.006 ±

0.005 ±

0.006 ±

[1/1]

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.003

0.003

0.002

0.002

TOTAL

0.398 ±

0.392 ±

0.401 ±

0.402 ±

0.412 ±

0.408 ±

0.414 ±

0.412 ±

[1/1]

0.013

0.018

0.010

0.010

0.010*

0.011

0.019*

0.020

Leukocyte system/erythrocyte

system quantitative ratio

1.010 ±

0.054

1.000 ±

0.066

1.021 ±

0.036

1.030 ±

0.036

1.067 ±

0.051

1.045 ±

0.047

1.058 ±

0.080

1.051 ±

0.072

n - number of test animals

* - statistically significant difference with p ≤ 0.05; Dunnett's test;

 

Table 10. Results of haematological studies – bone marrow examination. Leukocyte system - satellite groups (mean ± SD)

 

Parameter

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0SAT / 0

2SAT / 150

Male

n=5

Female

n=5

Male

n=4

Female

 n=4

MYELOBLASTS [1/1]

0.016 ± 0.003

0.016 ± 0.003

0.016 ± 0.003

0.017 ± 0.002

PROMYELOCYTES [1/1]

0.029 ± 0.003

0.030 ± 0.002

0.031 ± 0.004

0.031 ± 0.005

ORTHOCHROMATOPHILIC MYELOCYTES

[1/1]

0.037 ± 0.003

0.035 ± 0.005

0.040 ± 0.003

0.039 ± 0.004

ACIDOPHILIC

MYELOCYTES [1/1]

0.014 ± 0.002

0.014 ± 0.002

0.014 ± 0.002

0.015 ± 0.002

ORTHOCHROMATOPHILIC METAMYELOCYTES

[1/1]

0.046 ± 0.005

0.044 ± 0.005

0.049 ± 0.004

0.047 ± 0.004

ACIDOPHILIC METAMYELOCYTES

[1/1]

0.017 ± 0.002

0.017 ± 0.003

0.017 ± 0.002

0.016 ± 0.003

ROD NEUTROPHILS [1/1]

0.026 ± 0.004

0.028 ± 0.003

0.028 ± 0.003

0.026 ± 0.005

ROD EOSINOPHILS [1/1]

0.014 ± 0.002

0.013 ± 0.002

0.014 ± 0.002

0.015 ± 0.004

FILAMENTED

NEUTROPHILS [1/1]

0.181 ± 0.008

0.182 ± 0.006

0.183 ± 0.004

0.183 ± 0.007

FILAMENTED

EOSINOPHILS [1/1]

0.014 ± 0.002

0.014 ± 0.002

0.017 ± 0.002

0.017 ± 0.002

BASOPHILS [1/1]

0.005 ± 0.002

0.005 ± 0.002

0.005 ± 0.002

0.005 ± 0.002

TOTAL [1/1]

0.398 ± 0.011

0.397 ± 0.008

0.414 ± 0.005

0.411 ± 0.015

Leukocyte system/erythrocyte system quantitative ratio

1.013 ± 0.043

1.016 ± 0.049

1.064 ± 0.010

1.069 ± 0.064

n - number of test animals

No statistical analyses were conducted due to insufficient data

 

Table 11. Results of haematological studies – bone marrow examination. Different cells - treatment group (mean ± SD)

 

Parameter

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0/0

4/37.5

1/75

2/150

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=9

Female n=7

LYMPHOCYTES [1/1]

0.177 ± 0.013

0.182 ± 0.011

0.176 ± 0.008

0.175 ± 0.011

0.170 ± 0.011

0.170 ± 0.010*

0.163 ± 0.009*

0.160 ± 0.011*

MONOCYTES [1/1]

0.006 ± 0.003

0.007 ± 0.003

0.006 ± 0.002

0.007 ± 0.003

0.006 ± 0.002

0.007 ± 0.002

0.007 ± 0.003

0.007 ± 0.002

PLASMOCYTES [1/1]

0.005 ± 0.002

0.006 ± 0.002

0.005 ± 0.002

0.006 ± 0.002

0.006 ± 0.002

0.005 ± 0.002

0.005 ± 0.002

0.005 ± 0.002

MEGAKARYOCYTES [1/1]

0.005 ± 0.002

0.004 ± 0.001

0.006 ± 0.002

0.006 ± 0.002

0.004 ± 0.001

0.005 ± 0.002

0.005 ± 0.002

0.006 ± 0.002

OTHER CELLS [1/1]

0.015 ± 0.003

0.015 ± 0.003

0.014 ± 0.003

0.013 ± 0.004

0.015 ± 0.004

0.015 ± 0.003

0.015 ± 0.003

0.018 ± 0.002

TOTAL [1/1]

0.208 ± 0.014

0.215 ± 0.014

0.206 ± 0.008

0.207 ± 0.010

0.201 ± 0.010

0.202 ± 0.010

0.194 ± 0.011*

0.195 ± 0.013*

n - number of test animals

* - statistically significant difference with p ≤ 0.05; Dunnett's test;

 

Table 12. Results of haematological studies – bone marrow examination. Different cells - satellite groups (mean ± SD)

 

Parameter

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0SAT / 0

2SAT / 150

Male

n=5

Female

n=5

Male

n=4

Female

n=4

LYMPHOCYTES [1/1]

0.177 ± 0.021

0.178 ± 0.017

0.165 ± 0.007

0.173 ± 0.008

MONOCYTES [1/1]

0.006 ± 0.002

0.007 ± 0.003

0.007 ± 0.002

0.006 ± 0.002

PLASMOCYTES [1/1]

0.006 ± 0.002

0.005 ± 0.002

0.005 ± 0.002

0.006 ± 0.002

MEGAKARYOCYTES [1/1]

0.006 ± 0.002

0.006 ± 0.002

0.005 ± 0.002

0.005 ± 0.002

OTHER CELLS [1/1]

0.014 ± 0.002

0.016 ± 0.004

0.015 ± 0.002

0.014 ± 0.007

TOTAL [1/1]

0.208 ± 0.020

0.212 ± 0.016

0.197 ± 0.007

0.204 ± 0.014

n - number of test animals

No statistical analyses were conducted due to insufficient data

 

Table 13. Results of blood serum biochemical examination – treatment groups (mean ± SD)

 

Parameter

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0/0

4/37.5

1/75

2/150

Male

n=10

Female

n=10

Male

n=10

Female

n=10

Male

n=10

Female

n=10

Male

n=9

Female

n=7

TOTAL PROTEIN [g/L]

62.60 ± 3.77

64.76 ± 2.10

60.72 ± 3.66

64.40 ± 2.59

62.37 ± 2.30

63.43 ± 2.49

59.79 ± 3.21

65.90 ± 3.24

ALBUMIN [g/L]

32.86 ± 1.82

35.72 ± 1.33

32.32 ± 1.29

35.51 ± 1.76

31.67 ± 2.52

34.88 ± 1.51

29.53 ± 1.28*

34.56 ± 1.66

GLOBULIN [g/L]

29.74 ± 2.15

29.04 ± 1.16

28.40 ± 2.49

28.89 ± 1.35

30.70 ± 1.55

28.55 ± 1.21

30.26 ± 2.94

31.34 ± 2.36*

A/G RATIO

1.11 ± 0.05

1.23 ± 0.05

1.14 ± 0.07

1.23 ± 0.07

1.04 ± 0.12

1.22 ± 0.04

0.98 ± 0.10*

1.11 ± 0.08*

GLUCOSE [mmol/L]

8.42 ± 1.86

6.63 ± 1.13

8.71 ± 1.60

6.26 ± 0.88

8.59 ± 1.48

7.31 ± 1.07

8.17 ± 1.04

6.19 ± 0.79

CHOLESTEROL [mmol/L]

1.40 ± 0.27

1.06 ± 0.21

1.40 ± 0.21

1.15 ± 0.22

1.56 ± 0.37

1.16 ± 0.18

1.26 ± 0.19

1.13 ± 0.14

UREA NITROGEN [mmol/L]

5.43 ± 0.91

6.04 ± 0.83

5.47 ± 0.88

5.47 ± 0.58

4.91 ± 0.74

6.12 ± 1.26

5.33 ± 1.08

7.14 ± 1.06

CREATININE [μmol/L]

26.80 ± 2.82

31.80 ± 4.10

29.90 ± 2.69

29.90 ± 2.51

26.10 ± 3.98

31.50 ± 2.92

24.22 ± 3.11

27.71 ± 4.35

BILE ACIDS [μmol/L]

14.05 ± 13.87

12.09 ± 4.99

13.29 ± 11.33

15.25 ± 10.32

10.50 ± 7.77

15.78 ± 7.17

8.80 ± 2.85

13.13 ± 3.58

BILIRUBIN [μmol/L]

4.29 ± 1.04

4.00 ± 0.88

4.35 ± 1.53

4.38 ± 0.70

6.27 ± 5.57

5.41 ± 2.96

4.08 ± 0.28

5.36 ± 2.33

SODIUM [mmol/L]

144.80 ± 1.99

143.30 ± 2.11

144.00 ± 1.76

144.80 ± 1.32

146.10 ± 1.91

145.40 ± 1.26*

146.33 ± 1.58

145.00 ± 0.82

POTASSIUM [mmol/L]

4.17 ± 0.23

3.61 ± 0.25

3.99 ± 0.25

3.62 ± 0.24

4.09 ± 0.21

3.94 ± 0.67

4.01 ± 0.20

3.86 ± 0.22

CHLORIDES [mmol/L]

105.10 ± 1.66

106.90 ± 1.73

106.10 ± 1.37

109.60 ± 1.35*

106.60 ± 1.17

109.20 ± 1.14*

106.89 ± 1.83

107.86 ± 1.46

CALCIUM [mmol/L]

2.41 ± 0.09

2.45 ± 0.07

2.36 ± 0.05

2.42 ± 0.09

2.45 ± 0.08

2.53 ± 0.09

2.46 ± 0.09

2.56 ± 0.08

n - number of test animals

* - statistically significant difference with p ≤ 0.05; Dunnett's test

Table 14. Results of blood serum biochemical examination – satellite groups (mean ± SD)

 

Parameter

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0SAT / 0

0SAT / 0

2SAT / 150

2SAT / 150

Male

n=5

Female

n=5

Male

n=4

Female

n=4

TOTAL PROTEIN [g/L]

63.68 ± 1.57

63.98 ± 1.70

63.35 ± 4.97

67.17 ± 1.38

ALBUMIN [g/L]

33.46 ± 1.18

34.38 ± 0.68

31.60 ± 2.77

34.75 ± 1.98

GLOBULIN [g/L]

30.22 ± 0.99

29.60 ± 1.29

31.75 ± 3.01

32.42 ± 0.82

A/G RATIO

1.11 ± 0.05

1.16 ± 0.04

1.00 ± 0.09

1.07 ± 0.08

GLUCOSE [mmol/L]

9.48 ± 1.63

5.74 ± 0.57

7.25 ± 1.18

5.45 ± 0.47

CHOLESTEROL [mmol/L]

1.72 ± 0.29

1.24 ± 0.27

1.25 ± 0.33

1.08 ± 0.34

UREA NITROGEN [mmol/L]

5.60 ± 0.76

6.72 ± 1.01

6.42 ± 1.50

7.20 ± 1.39

CREATININE [μmol/L]

25.80 ± 5.97

33.40 ± 2.61

31.50 ± 8.70

30.00 ± 3.83

BILE ACIDS [μmol/L]

9.18 ± 6.49

24.16 ± 9.27

7.55 ± 4.58

28.18 ± 17.37

BILIRUBIN [μmol/L]

3.56 ± 0.38

3.96 ± 0.71

4.55 ± 1.61

4.93 ± 1.72

SODIUM [mmol/L]

146.40 ± 0.89

146.60 ± 0.89

144.00 ± 0.82

147.00 ± 1.63

POTASSIUM [mmol/L]

4.06 ± 0.35

3.96 ± 0.51

4.50 ± 0.77

3.83 ± 0.13

CHLORIDES [mmol/L]

105.80 ± 1.92

108.80 ± 0.84

107.00 ± 0.82

107.50 ± 0.58

CALCIUM [mmol/L]

2.44 ± 0.05

2.46 ± 0.09

2.38 ± 0.13

2.50 ± 0.08

n - number of test animals

No statistical analyses were conducted due to insufficient data

 

Table 15. Results of blood serum enzymatic examination – treatment group (mean ± SD)

 

Parameter

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0 / 0

4 / 37.5

1 / 75

2 / 150

Male

n=10

Female

n=10

Male

n=10

Female

n=10

Male

n=10

Female

n=10

Male

n=9

Female

n=7

AST [IU]

158.30 ± 80.67

111.40 ± 13.25

150.70 ± 64.76

114.10 ± 17.74

134.00 ± 26.73

177.50 ± 143.95

112.56 ± 17.26

121.14 ± 30.52

ALT [IU]

57.10 ± 46.87

21.90 ± 4.65

44.80 ± 18.80

27.10 ± 7.98

39.80 ± 14.60

48.20 ± 48.00

47.89 ± 14.86

33.43 ± 9.69

AP [IU]

111.20 ± 18.72

66.30 ± 15.12

120.50 ± 24.83

68.00 ± 20.83

117.90 ± 34.22

66.60 ± 16.91

103.56 ± 19.05

60.00 ± 22.78

n - number of test animals

 

Table 16. Results of blood serum enzymatic examination - satellite groups (mean ± SD)

 

Parameter

GROUP / DOSE [mg/kg bw]

0SAT / 0

0SAT / 0

2SAT / 150

2SAT / 150

Male

n=5

Female

n=5

Male

n=4

Female

n=4

AST [IU]

131.20 ± 41.58

107.60 ± 7.83

198.75 ± 140.32

120.50 ± 9.61

ALT [IU]

58.40 ± 53.07

26.40 ± 8.85

52.00 ± 22.02

30.00 ± 9.97

AP [IU]

82.00 ± 13.10

47.80 ± 13.16

88.75 ± 14.20

50.75 ± 23.67

n - number of test animals

No statistical analyses were conducted due to insufficient data

 

Table 17. Absolute weight of internal organs [mg] – treatment groups (mean ± SD)

 

Examined organ

GROUP/ DOSE [mg/kg bw]/ SEX /number of tested animals

0 /0

4 / 37.5

1/ 75

2 /150

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=9

Female n=7

 

Brain

2025.000

±  99.839

1903.000

±  73.332

2007.200

±  81.584

1920.000

±   103.756

2020.000

±  64.132

1896.400

±  56.473

1957.000

±  62.062

1859.429

±  52.233

 

Pituitary gland

9.400

± 1.350

13.600

± 1.350

9.600

± 1.506

12.900

± 1.101

9.200

± 1.033

13.400

± 2.221

9.111

± 1.269

13.714

± 2.215

 

Thyroid

22.400

± 2.875

18.900

± 1.663

25.500

± 4.223

20.300

± 3.592

22.500

± 2.635

19.500

± 3.274

25.222

± 1.787

22.143

± 4.220

 

Thymus

270.900

±  34.511

268.400

±  53.550

238.800

±  36.715

313.500

±  77.979

238.300

±  64.147

233.100

±  49.629

207.889

±  46.115

287.000

±  32.578

 

Heart

1048.800

±   110.728

682.500

±  82.288

1027.600

±   161.094

692.300

±  55.662

1013.800

±  72.879

672.200

±  33.416

989.889

±  91.069

712.571

±  63.364

 

Liver

12524.700

±    1631.383

6840.600

±   713.833

11329.900

±    1914.870

7207.000

±   459.416

11510.600

±    1529.824

7019.100

±   624.310

10475.556

±    1230.242

7764.429

±    1514.421

 

Spleen

665.800

±  66.471

518.600

±  78.983

628.900

±  72.931

541.400

±  72.749

660.700

±  77.589

537.500

±  60.508

643.667

±  93.711

601.571

±  90.286

 

Kidneys

2687.500

±   210.247

1671.700

±   148.110

2502.900

±   321.112

1662.600

±  77.188

2533.800

±   205.871

1645.000

±   103.522

2484.444

±   133.587

1716.857

±   131.868

 

Adrenal glands

64.100

± 7.724

83.900

±  12.369

66.800

± 9.271

80.800

± 7.671

68.300

±  10.914

89.900

±  15.808

66.222

±  10.895

95.714

±  11.898

 

Testicles

3514.400

±   245.596

-

3545.600

±   411851

 

-

3527.300

±   139.547

 

-

3590.889

±   119.913

 

-

 

Epididymides

1289.900

±  90.225

 

-

1387.900

±  97.870

 

-

1301.400

±  98.766

 

-

1334.222

±   108.059

 

-

Prostate with seminal vesicles and coagulating glands

 

1958.000

±   292.765

 

-

 

1957.800

±   285.079

 

-

 

1971.300

±   282.732

 

-

 

1768.889

±   257.981

 

-

 

Ovaries

 

-

111.400

±  15.608

 

-

107.400

± 9.548

 

-

112.500

±  19.580

 

-

120.429

±  20.411

 

Table 18. Relative weight of internal organs [%] – treatment groups (mean ± SD)

 

Examined organ

GROUP/ DOSE [mg/kg bw]/ SEX /number of tested animals

0 /0

4 / 37.5

1/ 75

2 /150

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=10

Female n=10

Male

n=10

Female n=9

Male

n=9

Female n=7

 

Brain

0.476

± 0.023

0.746

± 0.044

0.498

± 0.054

0.746

± 0.063

0.503

± 0.051

0.768

± 0.036

0.527

± 0.027

0.752

± 0.054

 

Pituitary gland

0.0005

±  0.0001

0.005

± 0.001

0.0005

±  0.0001

0.005

± 0.001

0.0005

±  0.0001

0.005

± 0.001

0.0005

±  0.0001

0.006

± 0.001

 

Thyroid

0.005

± 0.001

0.007

± 0.001

0.006

± 0.001

0.008

± 0.002

0.006

± 0.001

0.008

± 0.001

0.007*

± 0.001

0.009

± 0.002

 

Thymus

0.064

± 0.011

0.105

± 0.021

0.059

± 0.010

0.121

± 0.028

0.060

± 0.018

0.094

± 0.019

0.056

± 0.012

0.116

± 0.012

 

Heart

0.246

± 0.014

0.267

± 0.032

0.252

± 0.016

0.268

± 0.015

0.251

± 0.015

0.272

± 0.014

0.266

± 0.018

0.288

± 0.033

 

Liver

2.932

± 0.253

2.674

± 0.232

2.775

± 0.296

2.799

± 0.250

20847

± 0.309

2.839

± 0.213

2.813

± 0.277

3.162

± 0.788

 

Spleen

0.158

± 0.027

0.203

± 0.033

0.156

± 0.022

0.210

± 0.033

0.165

± 0.031

0.218

± 0.025

0.173

± 0.023

0.243

± 0.039

 

Kidneys

0.633

± 0.062

0.653

± 0.041

0.615

± 0.043

0.646

± 0.054

0.628

± 0.051

0.666

± 0.041

0.668

± 0.034

0.695

± 0.077

 

Adrenal glands

0.015

± 0.001

0.033

± 0.006

0.017

± 0.002

0.031

± 0.003

0.017

± 0.003

0.036

± 0.006

0.018

± 0.003

0.039

± 0.007

 

Testicles

0.827

± 0.072

 

-

0.872

± 0.063

 

-

0.878

± 0.091

 

-

0.968*

± 0.071

 

-

 

Epididymides

0.303

± 0.022

 

-

0.344

± 0.045

 

-

0.324

± 0.040

 

-

0.360*

± 0.041

 

-

Prostate with seminal vesicles and coagulating

glands

 

0.463

± 0.089

 

-

 

0.481

± 0.049

 

-

 

0.491

± 0.089

 

-

 

0.478

± 0.081

 

-

 

Ovaries

 

-

0.044

± 0.007

 

-

0.042

± 0.004

 

-

0.045

± 0.007

 

-

0.049

± 0.011

* – statistically significant difference at p≤0.05, Dunnett's test

 

Table 19. Absolute weight of internal organs [mg] - satellite groups (mean ± SD)

 

Examined organ

GROUP/ DOSE [mg/kg bw]/ SEX /number of tested animals

0SAT/ 0

2SAT / 150

Male

n=5

Female

n=5

Male

n=4

Female

n=4

Brain

2009.400 ± 126.342

1904.600 ± 82.327

2043.250 ± 105.019

1858.750 ± 65.250

Pituitary gland

8.800 ± 1.304

12.800 ± 1.789

10.250 ± 0.500

14.500 ± 1.915

Thyroid

26.200 ± 5.070

18.600 ± 1.342

28.000 ± 2.828

18.500 ± 2.517

Thymus

179.400 ± 28.086

264.000 ± 27.111

231.750 ± 16.500

292.750 ± 33.100

Heart

1084.800 ± 47.146

681.400 ± 54.784

1076.750 ± 53.637

652.750 ± 32.408

Liver

13039.200 ± 1844.809

6499.200 ± 885.599

11457.250 ± 856.439

6848.750 ± 369.244

Spleen

743.600 ± 69.650

540.600 ± 96.389

834.250 ± 40.036

607.000 ± 109.554

Kidneys

2667.200 ± 374.006

1584.000 ± 178.674

2726.000 ± 159.673

1745.750 ± 45.828

Adrenal glands

56.600 ± 10.991

80.000 ± 8.888

67.250 ± 5.909

98.250 ± 8.421

Testicles

3343.600 ± 555.634

-

3376.250 ± 220.135

-

Epididymides

1383.400 ± 183.877

-

1432.250 ± 51.136

-

Prostate with seminal vesicles and coagulating glands

 

2095.000 ± 344.400

 

-

 

2238.750 ± 565.526

 

-

Ovaries

-

111.000 ± 13.820

-

136.750 ± 19.380

No statistical analyses were conducted due to insufficient data

 

Table 20. Relative weight of internal organs [mg] - satellite groups (mean ± SD)

 

Examined organ

GROUP/ DOSE [mg/kg bw]/ SEX /number of tested animals

0SAT/ 0

2SAT / 150

Male

n=5

Female

n=5

Male

n=4

Female

n=4

Brain

0.466 ± 0.026

0.783 ± 0.023

0.513 ± 0.024

0.770 ± 0.020

Pituitary gland

0.0004 ± 0.0001

0.005 ± 0.001

0.0005 ± 0.00004

0.006 ± 0.001

Thyroid

0.006 ± 0.001

0.008 ± 0.0004

0.007 ± 0.001

0.008 ± 0.001

Thymus

0.041 ± 0.005

0.109 ± 0.012

0.058 ± 0.005

0.121 ± 0.013

Heart

0.252 ± 0.019

0.280 ± 0.018

0.270 ± 0.014

0.271 ± 0.018

Liver

3.017 ± 0.356

2.667 ± 0.316

2.877 ± 0.238

2.840 ± 0.167

Spleen

0.172 ± 0.017

0.221 ± 0.033

0.209 ± 0.009

0.252 ± 0.050

Kidneys

0.615 ± 0.048

0.651 ± 0.067

0.684 ± 0.035

0.724 ± 0.026

Adrenal glands

0.013 ± 0.003

0.033 ± 0.003

0.017 ± 0.001

0.041 ± 0.003

Testicles

0.771 ± 0.093

-

0.847 ± 0.046

-

Epididymides

0.320 ± 0.035

-

0.359 ± 0.012

-

Prostate with seminal vesicles and coagulating glands

 

0.485 ± 0.077

 

-

 

0.561 ± 0.136

 

-

Ovaries

-

0.045 ± 0.004

-

0.057 ± 0.007

No statistical analyses were conducted due to insufficient data

 

 

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
In this GLP compliant study, performed accoring to OECD 408, the potential toxicity of Rokopol RF-151 was evaluated in a 90 day gavage study in rats. On the basis of the results of the clinical, clinical-chemical, and post-mortem examinations, the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of the test item was determined to be 37.5 mg/kg bw/day for females and males.
Executive summary:

In this GLP compliant OECD 408 study, the potential toxicity of Rokopol RF-151 following oral administration to rats for 90 consecutive days was evaluated and reversibility of any effect was assessed at the end of 21-day recovery period. In total, 55 males and 55 females of Wistar (Cmdb: WI; outbred) rats were used in the experiment. At first the test item was administered at three different doses: 75 mg/kg bw (group 1), 150 mg/kg bw (group 2) and 300 mg/kg bw (group 3). Due to severe toxicity in the high dose group, this group was terminated for humanitarian reasons and a dose group of 37.5 mg/kg bw (group 4) was introduced. Each dose group, including control group, consisted of 10 animals per sex. Furthermore, two satellite groups were used, 0 SAT, and 2 SAT, receiving 0 and 150 mg/kb bw, respectively. Each satellite group consisted of 5 animals/sex/group and were treated for 90-days and after that, were observed for 21 days to evaluate the reversibility, stability, or delay in the onset of possible harmful effects.

During the whole experiment, the animals were observed for mortality and symptoms of toxicity of the test item. Ophthalmological examinations were conducted. Moreover, body weights and food consumption were measured and behavioural studies (open field observations, the evaluation of responses to stimuli and locomotor activity, and fore- and hindlimb grip strength measurements) were performed. After the 90-day experiment in groups 0, 4, 1 and 2 and after the 21-day additional observation period in groups 0 SAT and 2 SAT, all survived animals were anaesthetised to collect blood needed for the purpose of clinical-chemical examinations. Then, they were euthanised and subjected to post-mortem examinations. At the end of the experiment, all survived males and females from each group were subjected to clinical chemical examinations that included haematological examinations of peripheral blood and bone marrow, coagulation examinations, biochemical and enzymatic examinations of serum, general urinalyses and examinations of urine sediment. Post-mortem examinations involved gross examinations, the determination of absolute and relative weights of organs and histopathological examinations of tissues and organs.

There was no mortality in group 0, 0 SAT, 4 and 1. At the highest dose of 150 mg/kg bw 6 animals died during the course of the experiment, these were: 4 females (3 from group 2 and 1 from group 2 SAT) and 2 males (1 from group 2 and 1 from group 2 SAT). There were no significant differences in appearance and behaviour between the animals of treated groups, i.e. 4, 1, 2 and 2 SAT and the control groups (0 and 0 SAT). During the whole experiment clinical signs were noticed in several animals. However, they should not be associated with the action of the test item. The ophthalmic examinations did not reveal any changes both in the eyes of the control and the treated animals. The administration of the test item did not influence food intake in the treated groups, but it probably influenced body weights at the dose of 150 mg/kg bw. The behavioural studies showed that the nervous system functioned properly. On the basis of the detailed clinical observations, made during and after the treatment, and the open field observations, no muscarinic, nicotinic, or central symptoms were noticed. Delayed neurotoxicity was not observed. The evaluation of responses to stimuli showed no adverse effects of the test item. On the basis of the fore- and hindlimb grip strength measurement, the detailed clinical observations, the open field observations, it can be concluded that the test item did not cause any miotoxic changes but it probably affected locomotor activity measurement. Statistical analyses of the clinical-chemical examinations results showed several statistically significant changes which were perceived as caused by the test item. These changes may indicate inflammation in treated animals. Other statistically significant changes were considered as not related with treatment. Changes were observed also in satellite groups, after additional 21-days of observation, in the results of haematological examinations (increase in the number of leukocytes) and changes in the percentage content of leukocytes (increase in the number of neutrocytes, decrease in the number of lymphocytes).

At the doses of 75 and 150 mg/kg bw, there were gross and histopathological lesions stated, which probably may state for the adverse effect of the test item on the treated animals, i.e: in mesenteric lymph nodes from group 1, 2 and 2 SAT atrophic lymphoid tissue, increased histiocytes, necrosis, enlargement, fibrosis with accompanying in some cases angiogenesis and/or shrinking and/or plasma cell hyperplasia and/or cell degeneration and vacuolation; in spleen in females of group 2, white pulp hyperplasia, due to increase in the number of animals as well as severity degree in comparison with control group; erosions in stomach, due to a slightly higher intensity of occurrence in connection with necrosis of mucosa (singular cases in groups with the highest dose), there is a possibility of influence of test item on stomach mucosa in the highest dose.

On the basis of the results of the clinical, clinical-chemical, and post-mortem examinations which were parts of this study, it may be concluded that the test item related changes at the mid, i.e. 75 mg/kg bw and the highest dose, i.e. 150 mg/kg bw/day were observed in males and females. The No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of the test item was determined to be 37.5 mg/kg bw/day for females and males.