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In a study conducted according to OECD 106 (2000), the adsorption and desorption of the test item HH-2014 -548 was indirectly determined in five different soils for different incubation times.

2 mg test item /L (concentration used for adsorption kinetics), 1, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.02 mg test item /L were used for the following durations:

Tier 1: 24h

Tier 2: 0.25h, 0.5h, 1h for all soils

2h, 4h, 6h, 24h for soils LUFA 2.2 and 2.4

Desorption kinetics: 2h, 4h, 24h and 72h

Adsorption isotherms: 1h

The results showed a low desorption of 0.05 to 0.7 % during desorption kinetic experiments and a corresponding high adsorption of nearly 100% in the respective adsorption kintetics experiments, thus it can be concluded that HH-2014 -548 strongly interacts with soils, sediment and suspended matter in natural environment.

In a study to determine the soil sorption with the HPLC-Method it was found that the test item strongly interacted with the analytical column. Based on the results obtained it was concluded that the test substance has a Koc value of higher than the reference substance 2,4-DDT. It corresponds with Koc and log Koc value for the test substance of > 427000 and > 5,63, respectively.

From these findings it can be concluded that oleic-acid based IQAC, DMS quaternised will strongly interact with soils, sediment and suspended matter in natural environment. It is technically not feasible to determine a concrete soil sorption coefficient.

Henry's Law Constant was calculated using EPIWIN v3.20, HENRYWIN v3.10 (bond method) and estimated based on the calculated water solubility and vapour pressure (EPIWIN calculations) according to H=vp/ws gave a Henry's Law Constant to get a hint on the volatilisation potential. The calculated Henry's Law Constants indicate that the substance can be regarded as non-volatile from aqueous solution. Due to missing information about the applicability of the calculation model in respect to the substance under investigation the results should be treated with care.Considering the molecular structure, extremely low vapour pressures for the ionic substances are expected. Therefore volatilisation of the oleic-acid based IQAC, DMS quaternised is negligible.

An extraction study was conducted on paper towel to determine the potential migration of imidazolium quaternary ammonium compound (IQAC) from test materials into food-simulating solvents under exaggerated conditions of use (IQAC levels: 0.15% and 0.36%). The extraction was performed in triplicate using 8% and 50% ethanol as extracting solvents at approx. 250°F for 10 minutes, then approx. 120°F for 24 hours. A HPLC/UV method was developed and validated (LOD: 0.403 µg/in. ²). IQAC was not detected in either the 8% or the 50% ethanol extracts taken immediately after 10 min at 250°F. After further 24 h of extraction, mean values of 0.6 and <0.4 µg/in² were detected in 8 and 50% ethanol at an IQAC concentration of 0.15%. At an IQAC concentration of 0.36% mean values of 1.26 and <0.5 µg/in² were determined. Migration into aqueous food and fatty foods was estimated to be 0.13 and 0.05 ppm. The aqueous food and the fatty food migration values, based on a use level of 0.5%, were calculated to be 0.18 ppm and 0.07 ppm, respectively. Using the food distribution factors for uncoated paper, the concentration in the daily diet is 6.7 ppb and the estimated daily intake would not exceed 0.020 mg/person/day. The test compound was prepared using DMS (dimethyl sulfate) which is known to be a carcinogen. DMS was not found at a level of 4 ppm in oleic-acid based IQAC, DMS quaternised. Based on various assumptions a dietary concentration of 0.01 ppb and a estimated daily intake of 0.03 µg/day can be calculated. This is 50 times lower than the Threshold of Regulation dietary limit of 0.5 ppb for DMS.

In 2000, the FDA approved the use of IQAC at concentration up to 0.5% by weight of the dry paper and paperboard.