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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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From a review of the long-term effects of potassium and sodium dichromate on aquatic invertebrates, a range of results is presented based on several endpoints and durations of exposure. As well as effects on survival and reproduction of invertebrates, sublethal effects of exposure to chromium (VI) have been reported. Adult grass shrimp,Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to levels of chromium (VI) (as sodium chromate) ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/l over 28 days. Approximately 41% of surviving shrimp possessed cuticular lesions, usually associated with articulations of the appendages and abdomen, after exposure to 0.5 mg/l. Increasing exposure

concentrations lead to a proportionate increase in the loss of limbs such that nearly 50% of limbs were lost at the highest exposure concentration. It was proposed that the organisms experienced chromium-induced exoskeletal deficiencies resulting in a viaduct for pathogenic organisms and direct chromium influx that perpetuated lesion development (Doughtie et al., 1983).