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Guidance on Safe Use

Guidance on Safe Use

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First-aid measures

Inhalation: If the person is affected by inhaled vapours or combustion products, remove the person to fresh air at once. Provide respiratory support as needed. Get medical attention immediately.

Skin contact: Immediately decontaminate contact area. Ensure shoes and clothing are free from material before reuse - discard if necessary. Get medical attention immediately, if irritation continues. Wash immediately contaminated parts with large amounts of water and soap at least 15 minutes.

Eye contact: Immediately decontaminate eyes with plenty of water. Get medical attention immediately, if irritation continues.

Ingestion: DO NOT induce vomiting, as aspirationof liquid product into the lungs can cause chemical pneumonitis. Get medical attention immediately.

Notes to Physicians: Treat as organic nitrate poisoning. Symptoms of vasodilation may be present following organic nitrate over exposure.

See Section 13 for more details: Best Practices MANUAL of 2-EHN (ATC)

Fire-fighting measures

Suitable Extinguishing Media for large fires: water spray, foam (alcohol resistant preferably).
uitable Extinguishing Media for small fires: dry chemical powder or CO2.
Do not use water jet.

Special fire fighting procedures: Removal of radiant heat from nearby fire is vital.
Radiant heat from surrounding fires can heat up tanks containing 2-EHN, and in theory start a bulk liquid phase decomposition with potential catastrophic effects. A credible scenario is that when a storage tank is involved in a fire, the upper tank surfaces in contact with the vapour will rapidly reach the auto-ignition temperature (130°C) of 2-EHN. This will lead to an air-vapour explosion in the headspace of the tank, which could become projectiles if its roof is not frangible.
The hazard is well recognised for kerosene and gas-oil storage tanks where the auto-ignition temperatures are of the order of 250°C, more than 100°C higher than 2-EHN.
Apply deluge water onto tank walls to keep the product cool.
2-EHN is thermally unstable - when heated above 100°C, it may undergo a self-accelerating exothermic decomposition. Cool containers exposed to flames with flooding quantities of water until well after the fire is out.
Be aware of the danger of a container bursting under pressure followed by combustion of vapours. Fight any fire from a safe distance or protected locations. Do not approach containers suspected to be hot.
if tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in fire, ISOLATE the container and evacuate personnel to ensure safety.
Drums and IBC's should be immediately cooled by spraying firewater from a fixed deluge. Sealed drums of 2-EHN in an intense fire will rupture after a short period of exposure (practical tests and theoretical examples indicate a time to rupture of 10 to 20 minutes, depending on conditions). Bursting drums will give rise to projectiles/flying fragments and fireball formation, which will add to the severity of the incident.

Special protective equipment for firefighters: Exhaust gases from fire or products of decomposition are toxic (they contain oxides of nitrogen and combustion products). Therefore, fire fighters must be protected by wearing self contained breathing apparatus. Wear chemical protective clothing; however, such clothing may provide little or no thermal protection. Fire fighter's protective clothing will only provide limited chemical protection.

See Section 13 for more details: Best Practices MANUAL of 2-EHN (ATC)

Accidental release measures

Personal precaution(s) :
Do not breathe fumes, vapours, gas.
Avoid contact with skin, eyes, or clothing.
All non-essential personnel should evacuate the affected area.
Shut off ignition sources.
Use water spray to reduce vapours.
No smoking, flames or flares in hazard area.
Isolate hazard area and restrict entry.

Environmental precaution(s) :
Prevent contamination of soil and water.
Adequate PPE should be used to avoid exposure to skin or risk of inhalation during clean up operations.

Method(s) for cleaning up:
- RECOVERY: Recover spilled material with an absorbent (earth, sand,...) and place in a labelled container for later disposal. For large spill, dike spilled area for later disposal.
- DISPOSAL: Incinerate in an authorized area.

See Section 13 for more details: Best Practices MANUAL of 2-EHN (ATC)

Handling and storage

Handling
- Precaution(s):
Prevent heating above 100 °C due to severe risk of pressure rise and explosion
Maximal recommended handling temperature : 60 °C.
- Technical condition(s) : None to our knowledge.

Storage
- Precaution(s) :
Store in a ventilated area in tightly closed containers equipped with means of preventing the product from reaching 100 °C.
Maximal recommended storage temperature : 40 °C.
- Packaging / tank material : Mild steel. Stainless steel. Aluminium. PTFE. Perfluoro elastomers.
- Unsuitable packaging materials : Natural or butyl rubbers.

See Section 13 for more details: Best Practices MANUAL of 2-EHN (ATC)

Transport information

Land transport (ADR/RID)

UN number:
UN N°3082
Proper shipping name and description:
Environmentally hazardous substance, liquid, n.o.s. (2-ethylhexyl nitrate)
Class:
Class 9
Packaging group:
Packing group III
Labels:
Packing instructions: P001- IBC03 - LP01 - R001
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Marine transport (IMDG)

UN number:
UN N°3082
Proper shipping name and description:
Environmentally hazardous substance, liquid, n.o.s. (2-ethylhexyl nitrate)
Class:
Class 9
Packaging group:
Packing group III
Labels:
Packing instructions: P001 – LP01 – IBC 03
Marine pollutant
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Air transport ICAO/IATA

UN number:
UN N°3082
Proper shipping name and description:
Environmentally hazardous substance, liquid, n.o.s. (2-ethylhexyl nitrate)
Class:
Class 9
Packaging group:
Packing group III
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Exposure controls / personal protection

Exposure Limit Values:
Manufacturers and suppliers have set an internal exposure guideline for 2-EHN. This is an exposure guideline that is intended to set a level which does not overexpose the employee while handling the material. It is not a regulated limit that is established by a governmental or other agency.
The internal exposure guideline for 2-EHN is 1 ppm based on an 8hr time weighted average (TWA). In the light of the potential temporary effects of overexposure, it is suggested that 1 ppm is also adopted as reference standard for short term exposures averaged over 15 minutes (STEL).

Exposure Controls:
If an operation creates the potential for employee overexposure, accepted engineering or administrative controls should be the first choices for control. When effective engineering or administrative controls are not feasible, or when they are being implemented or evaluated, appropriate respiratory and skin protection can be used to control employee exposures.

Personal Protective Equipment - Respiratory Protection:
Respiratory protection is required for open systems or where concentration of 2-EHN in the working environment is higher than the recommended exposure guideline of 1 ppm TWA/STEL. 2-EHN has a very persistent odour with a low odour threshold. The respirator chosen should be appropriate for the exposure potential, level of exposure and working conditions.

Personal Protective Equipment - Hand protection:
When contact is likely, appropriate wrist long chemical resistant gloves (neoprene or nitrile rubber) should be worn.

Personal Protective Equipment - Eye Protection:
Eye protection should be chosen based on the exposure potential and working conditions.

Personal Protective Equipment - skin protection:
When skin contact is likely, appropriate skin protection should be used. Leather clothing can be hazardous when they have become contamined with 2-EHN. Leather can absorb 2-EHN and maintain a continuous low level exposure over a prolonged period of time. Thus, leather clothing and other items should not be specified as protective clothing for handling 2-EHN, and should be removed and destroyed promptly if they become contaminated.

Stability and reactivity

2-EHN is stable at ambient temperatures, however it has a low auto-ignition temperature and will decompose when heated above 100°C. This temperature is significantly lower than auto-ignition temperature of normal hydrocarbons and represents a key factor in designing equipment dedicated to storage, handling and transportation of 2-EHN.

Conditions to avoid:
Avoid all contact with sources of heat, flames, sparks or any other source of ignition. Vapours may be explosive. Avoid overheating of containers. Containers may violently rupture in heat of fire.

Materials to avoid:
Avoid contamination with acids, alkalis, reducing and oxidising agents, amines and phosphorus.
Alkyl nitrates as a class of compounds react violently with strong mineral acids after an induction period of up to several hours to produce a vigorous evolution of gas such as oxides of nitrogen. Traces of nitrogen oxides can promote decomposition of alkyl nitrates. This can lead to container rupture on heating or pressure build up on prolonged storage at ambient temperatures. Transition metal oxides or their chelates also greatly accelerate the decomposition rate.

Hazardous decomposition products:
Combustion or thermal decomposition products of 2-EHN are oxides of carbon and nitrogen.

Disposal considerations

Recover product whenever possible. Incineration in approved onsite or offsite facilities equipped with flue gas post-combustion, wet scrubbing and de-dusting systems is the preferred disposal practice. Provided that 2-EHN is not confined, there should be no risk of violent decomposition. 2-EHN is not suitable for landfill or treatment by biological processes. Decomposition and fire may also occur with wastes containing 2-EHN if overheating or contact with reactive materials occurs.